binfmt_elf.c 63.8 KB
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/*
 * linux/fs/binfmt_elf.c
 *
 * These are the functions used to load ELF format executables as used
 * on SVr4 machines.  Information on the format may be found in the book
 * "UNIX SYSTEM V RELEASE 4 Programmers Guide: Ansi C and Programming Support
 * Tools".
 *
 * Copyright 1993, 1994: Eric Youngdale (ericy@cais.com).
 */

#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/kernel.h>
#include <linux/fs.h>
#include <linux/mm.h>
#include <linux/mman.h>
#include <linux/errno.h>
#include <linux/signal.h>
#include <linux/binfmts.h>
#include <linux/string.h>
#include <linux/file.h>
#include <linux/slab.h>
#include <linux/personality.h>
#include <linux/elfcore.h>
#include <linux/init.h>
#include <linux/highuid.h>
#include <linux/compiler.h>
#include <linux/highmem.h>
#include <linux/pagemap.h>
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#include <linux/vmalloc.h>
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#include <linux/security.h>
#include <linux/random.h>
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#include <linux/elf.h>
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#include <linux/elf-randomize.h>
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#include <linux/utsname.h>
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#include <linux/coredump.h>
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#include <linux/sched.h>
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#include <linux/sched/coredump.h>
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#include <linux/sched/task_stack.h>
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#include <linux/sched/cputime.h>
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#include <linux/cred.h>
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#include <linux/dax.h>
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#include <linux/uaccess.h>
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#include <asm/param.h>
#include <asm/page.h>

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#ifndef user_long_t
#define user_long_t long
#endif
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#ifndef user_siginfo_t
#define user_siginfo_t siginfo_t
#endif

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/* That's for binfmt_elf_fdpic to deal with */
#ifndef elf_check_fdpic
#define elf_check_fdpic(ex) false
#endif

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static int load_elf_binary(struct linux_binprm *bprm);
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static unsigned long elf_map(struct file *, unsigned long, struct elf_phdr *,
				int, int, unsigned long);
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#ifdef CONFIG_USELIB
static int load_elf_library(struct file *);
#else
#define load_elf_library NULL
#endif

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/*
 * If we don't support core dumping, then supply a NULL so we
 * don't even try.
 */
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#ifdef CONFIG_ELF_CORE
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static int elf_core_dump(struct coredump_params *cprm);
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#else
#define elf_core_dump	NULL
#endif

#if ELF_EXEC_PAGESIZE > PAGE_SIZE
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#define ELF_MIN_ALIGN	ELF_EXEC_PAGESIZE
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#else
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#define ELF_MIN_ALIGN	PAGE_SIZE
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#endif

#ifndef ELF_CORE_EFLAGS
#define ELF_CORE_EFLAGS	0
#endif

#define ELF_PAGESTART(_v) ((_v) & ~(unsigned long)(ELF_MIN_ALIGN-1))
#define ELF_PAGEOFFSET(_v) ((_v) & (ELF_MIN_ALIGN-1))
#define ELF_PAGEALIGN(_v) (((_v) + ELF_MIN_ALIGN - 1) & ~(ELF_MIN_ALIGN - 1))

static struct linux_binfmt elf_format = {
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	.module		= THIS_MODULE,
	.load_binary	= load_elf_binary,
	.load_shlib	= load_elf_library,
	.core_dump	= elf_core_dump,
	.min_coredump	= ELF_EXEC_PAGESIZE,
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};

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#define BAD_ADDR(x) ((unsigned long)(x) >= TASK_SIZE)
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static int set_brk(unsigned long start, unsigned long end, int prot)
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{
	start = ELF_PAGEALIGN(start);
	end = ELF_PAGEALIGN(end);
	if (end > start) {
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		/*
		 * Map the last of the bss segment.
		 * If the header is requesting these pages to be
		 * executable, honour that (ppc32 needs this).
		 */
		int error = vm_brk_flags(start, end - start,
				prot & PROT_EXEC ? VM_EXEC : 0);
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		if (error)
			return error;
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	}
	current->mm->start_brk = current->mm->brk = end;
	return 0;
}

/* We need to explicitly zero any fractional pages
   after the data section (i.e. bss).  This would
   contain the junk from the file that should not
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   be in memory
 */
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static int padzero(unsigned long elf_bss)
{
	unsigned long nbyte;

	nbyte = ELF_PAGEOFFSET(elf_bss);
	if (nbyte) {
		nbyte = ELF_MIN_ALIGN - nbyte;
		if (clear_user((void __user *) elf_bss, nbyte))
			return -EFAULT;
	}
	return 0;
}

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/* Let's use some macros to make this stack manipulation a little clearer */
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#ifdef CONFIG_STACK_GROWSUP
#define STACK_ADD(sp, items) ((elf_addr_t __user *)(sp) + (items))
#define STACK_ROUND(sp, items) \
	((15 + (unsigned long) ((sp) + (items))) &~ 15UL)
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#define STACK_ALLOC(sp, len) ({ \
	elf_addr_t __user *old_sp = (elf_addr_t __user *)sp; sp += len; \
	old_sp; })
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#else
#define STACK_ADD(sp, items) ((elf_addr_t __user *)(sp) - (items))
#define STACK_ROUND(sp, items) \
	(((unsigned long) (sp - items)) &~ 15UL)
#define STACK_ALLOC(sp, len) ({ sp -= len ; sp; })
#endif

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#ifndef ELF_BASE_PLATFORM
/*
 * AT_BASE_PLATFORM indicates the "real" hardware/microarchitecture.
 * If the arch defines ELF_BASE_PLATFORM (in asm/elf.h), the value
 * will be copied to the user stack in the same manner as AT_PLATFORM.
 */
#define ELF_BASE_PLATFORM NULL
#endif

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static int
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create_elf_tables(struct linux_binprm *bprm, struct elfhdr *exec,
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		unsigned long load_addr, unsigned long interp_load_addr)
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{
	unsigned long p = bprm->p;
	int argc = bprm->argc;
	int envc = bprm->envc;
	elf_addr_t __user *sp;
	elf_addr_t __user *u_platform;
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	elf_addr_t __user *u_base_platform;
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	elf_addr_t __user *u_rand_bytes;
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	const char *k_platform = ELF_PLATFORM;
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	const char *k_base_platform = ELF_BASE_PLATFORM;
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	unsigned char k_rand_bytes[16];
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	int items;
	elf_addr_t *elf_info;
	int ei_index = 0;
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	const struct cred *cred = current_cred();
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	struct vm_area_struct *vma;
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	/*
	 * In some cases (e.g. Hyper-Threading), we want to avoid L1
	 * evictions by the processes running on the same package. One
	 * thing we can do is to shuffle the initial stack for them.
	 */

	p = arch_align_stack(p);

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	/*
	 * If this architecture has a platform capability string, copy it
	 * to userspace.  In some cases (Sparc), this info is impossible
	 * for userspace to get any other way, in others (i386) it is
	 * merely difficult.
	 */
	u_platform = NULL;
	if (k_platform) {
		size_t len = strlen(k_platform) + 1;

		u_platform = (elf_addr_t __user *)STACK_ALLOC(p, len);
		if (__copy_to_user(u_platform, k_platform, len))
			return -EFAULT;
	}

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	/*
	 * If this architecture has a "base" platform capability
	 * string, copy it to userspace.
	 */
	u_base_platform = NULL;
	if (k_base_platform) {
		size_t len = strlen(k_base_platform) + 1;

		u_base_platform = (elf_addr_t __user *)STACK_ALLOC(p, len);
		if (__copy_to_user(u_base_platform, k_base_platform, len))
			return -EFAULT;
	}

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	/*
	 * Generate 16 random bytes for userspace PRNG seeding.
	 */
	get_random_bytes(k_rand_bytes, sizeof(k_rand_bytes));
	u_rand_bytes = (elf_addr_t __user *)
		       STACK_ALLOC(p, sizeof(k_rand_bytes));
	if (__copy_to_user(u_rand_bytes, k_rand_bytes, sizeof(k_rand_bytes)))
		return -EFAULT;

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	/* Create the ELF interpreter info */
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	elf_info = (elf_addr_t *)current->mm->saved_auxv;
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	/* update AT_VECTOR_SIZE_BASE if the number of NEW_AUX_ENT() changes */
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#define NEW_AUX_ENT(id, val) \
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	do { \
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		elf_info[ei_index++] = id; \
		elf_info[ei_index++] = val; \
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	} while (0)
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#ifdef ARCH_DLINFO
	/* 
	 * ARCH_DLINFO must come first so PPC can do its special alignment of
	 * AUXV.
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	 * update AT_VECTOR_SIZE_ARCH if the number of NEW_AUX_ENT() in
	 * ARCH_DLINFO changes
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	 */
	ARCH_DLINFO;
#endif
	NEW_AUX_ENT(AT_HWCAP, ELF_HWCAP);
	NEW_AUX_ENT(AT_PAGESZ, ELF_EXEC_PAGESIZE);
	NEW_AUX_ENT(AT_CLKTCK, CLOCKS_PER_SEC);
	NEW_AUX_ENT(AT_PHDR, load_addr + exec->e_phoff);
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	NEW_AUX_ENT(AT_PHENT, sizeof(struct elf_phdr));
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	NEW_AUX_ENT(AT_PHNUM, exec->e_phnum);
	NEW_AUX_ENT(AT_BASE, interp_load_addr);
	NEW_AUX_ENT(AT_FLAGS, 0);
	NEW_AUX_ENT(AT_ENTRY, exec->e_entry);
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	NEW_AUX_ENT(AT_UID, from_kuid_munged(cred->user_ns, cred->uid));
	NEW_AUX_ENT(AT_EUID, from_kuid_munged(cred->user_ns, cred->euid));
	NEW_AUX_ENT(AT_GID, from_kgid_munged(cred->user_ns, cred->gid));
	NEW_AUX_ENT(AT_EGID, from_kgid_munged(cred->user_ns, cred->egid));
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	NEW_AUX_ENT(AT_SECURE, bprm->secureexec);
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	NEW_AUX_ENT(AT_RANDOM, (elf_addr_t)(unsigned long)u_rand_bytes);
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#ifdef ELF_HWCAP2
	NEW_AUX_ENT(AT_HWCAP2, ELF_HWCAP2);
#endif
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	NEW_AUX_ENT(AT_EXECFN, bprm->exec);
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	if (k_platform) {
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		NEW_AUX_ENT(AT_PLATFORM,
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			    (elf_addr_t)(unsigned long)u_platform);
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	}
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	if (k_base_platform) {
		NEW_AUX_ENT(AT_BASE_PLATFORM,
			    (elf_addr_t)(unsigned long)u_base_platform);
	}
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	if (bprm->interp_flags & BINPRM_FLAGS_EXECFD) {
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		NEW_AUX_ENT(AT_EXECFD, bprm->interp_data);
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	}
#undef NEW_AUX_ENT
	/* AT_NULL is zero; clear the rest too */
	memset(&elf_info[ei_index], 0,
	       sizeof current->mm->saved_auxv - ei_index * sizeof elf_info[0]);

	/* And advance past the AT_NULL entry.  */
	ei_index += 2;

	sp = STACK_ADD(p, ei_index);

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	items = (argc + 1) + (envc + 1) + 1;
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	bprm->p = STACK_ROUND(sp, items);

	/* Point sp at the lowest address on the stack */
#ifdef CONFIG_STACK_GROWSUP
	sp = (elf_addr_t __user *)bprm->p - items - ei_index;
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	bprm->exec = (unsigned long)sp; /* XXX: PARISC HACK */
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#else
	sp = (elf_addr_t __user *)bprm->p;
#endif

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	/*
	 * Grow the stack manually; some architectures have a limit on how
	 * far ahead a user-space access may be in order to grow the stack.
	 */
	vma = find_extend_vma(current->mm, bprm->p);
	if (!vma)
		return -EFAULT;

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	/* Now, let's put argc (and argv, envp if appropriate) on the stack */
	if (__put_user(argc, sp++))
		return -EFAULT;

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	/* Populate list of argv pointers back to argv strings. */
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	p = current->mm->arg_end = current->mm->arg_start;
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	while (argc-- > 0) {
		size_t len;
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		if (__put_user((elf_addr_t)p, sp++))
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			return -EFAULT;
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		len = strnlen_user((void __user *)p, MAX_ARG_STRLEN);
		if (!len || len > MAX_ARG_STRLEN)
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			return -EINVAL;
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		p += len;
	}
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	if (__put_user(0, sp++))
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		return -EFAULT;
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	current->mm->arg_end = p;

	/* Populate list of envp pointers back to envp strings. */
	current->mm->env_end = current->mm->env_start = p;
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	while (envc-- > 0) {
		size_t len;
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		if (__put_user((elf_addr_t)p, sp++))
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			return -EFAULT;
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		len = strnlen_user((void __user *)p, MAX_ARG_STRLEN);
		if (!len || len > MAX_ARG_STRLEN)
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			return -EINVAL;
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		p += len;
	}
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	if (__put_user(0, sp++))
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		return -EFAULT;
	current->mm->env_end = p;

	/* Put the elf_info on the stack in the right place.  */
	if (copy_to_user(sp, elf_info, ei_index * sizeof(elf_addr_t)))
		return -EFAULT;
	return 0;
}

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#ifndef elf_map

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static unsigned long elf_map(struct file *filep, unsigned long addr,
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		struct elf_phdr *eppnt, int prot, int type,
		unsigned long total_size)
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{
	unsigned long map_addr;
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	unsigned long size = eppnt->p_filesz + ELF_PAGEOFFSET(eppnt->p_vaddr);
	unsigned long off = eppnt->p_offset - ELF_PAGEOFFSET(eppnt->p_vaddr);
	addr = ELF_PAGESTART(addr);
	size = ELF_PAGEALIGN(size);
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	/* mmap() will return -EINVAL if given a zero size, but a
	 * segment with zero filesize is perfectly valid */
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	if (!size)
		return addr;

	/*
	* total_size is the size of the ELF (interpreter) image.
	* The _first_ mmap needs to know the full size, otherwise
	* randomization might put this image into an overlapping
	* position with the ELF binary image. (since size < total_size)
	* So we first map the 'big' image - and unmap the remainder at
	* the end. (which unmap is needed for ELF images with holes.)
	*/
	if (total_size) {
		total_size = ELF_PAGEALIGN(total_size);
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		map_addr = vm_mmap(filep, addr, total_size, prot, type, off);
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		if (!BAD_ADDR(map_addr))
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			vm_munmap(map_addr+size, total_size-size);
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	} else
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		map_addr = vm_mmap(filep, addr, size, prot, type, off);
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	if ((type & MAP_FIXED_NOREPLACE) &&
	    PTR_ERR((void *)map_addr) == -EEXIST)
		pr_info("%d (%s): Uhuuh, elf segment at %px requested but the memory is mapped already\n",
			task_pid_nr(current), current->comm, (void *)addr);
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	return(map_addr);
}

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#endif /* !elf_map */

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static unsigned long total_mapping_size(struct elf_phdr *cmds, int nr)
{
	int i, first_idx = -1, last_idx = -1;

	for (i = 0; i < nr; i++) {
		if (cmds[i].p_type == PT_LOAD) {
			last_idx = i;
			if (first_idx == -1)
				first_idx = i;
		}
	}
	if (first_idx == -1)
		return 0;

	return cmds[last_idx].p_vaddr + cmds[last_idx].p_memsz -
				ELF_PAGESTART(cmds[first_idx].p_vaddr);
}

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/**
 * load_elf_phdrs() - load ELF program headers
 * @elf_ex:   ELF header of the binary whose program headers should be loaded
 * @elf_file: the opened ELF binary file
 *
 * Loads ELF program headers from the binary file elf_file, which has the ELF
 * header pointed to by elf_ex, into a newly allocated array. The caller is
 * responsible for freeing the allocated data. Returns an ERR_PTR upon failure.
 */
static struct elf_phdr *load_elf_phdrs(struct elfhdr *elf_ex,
				       struct file *elf_file)
{
	struct elf_phdr *elf_phdata = NULL;
	int retval, size, err = -1;
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	loff_t pos = elf_ex->e_phoff;
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	/*
	 * If the size of this structure has changed, then punt, since
	 * we will be doing the wrong thing.
	 */
	if (elf_ex->e_phentsize != sizeof(struct elf_phdr))
		goto out;

	/* Sanity check the number of program headers... */
	if (elf_ex->e_phnum < 1 ||
		elf_ex->e_phnum > 65536U / sizeof(struct elf_phdr))
		goto out;

	/* ...and their total size. */
	size = sizeof(struct elf_phdr) * elf_ex->e_phnum;
	if (size > ELF_MIN_ALIGN)
		goto out;

	elf_phdata = kmalloc(size, GFP_KERNEL);
	if (!elf_phdata)
		goto out;

	/* Read in the program headers */
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	retval = kernel_read(elf_file, elf_phdata, size, &pos);
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	if (retval != size) {
		err = (retval < 0) ? retval : -EIO;
		goto out;
	}

	/* Success! */
	err = 0;
out:
	if (err) {
		kfree(elf_phdata);
		elf_phdata = NULL;
	}
	return elf_phdata;
}
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#ifndef CONFIG_ARCH_BINFMT_ELF_STATE

/**
 * struct arch_elf_state - arch-specific ELF loading state
 *
 * This structure is used to preserve architecture specific data during
 * the loading of an ELF file, throughout the checking of architecture
 * specific ELF headers & through to the point where the ELF load is
 * known to be proceeding (ie. SET_PERSONALITY).
 *
 * This implementation is a dummy for architectures which require no
 * specific state.
 */
struct arch_elf_state {
};

#define INIT_ARCH_ELF_STATE {}

/**
 * arch_elf_pt_proc() - check a PT_LOPROC..PT_HIPROC ELF program header
 * @ehdr:	The main ELF header
 * @phdr:	The program header to check
 * @elf:	The open ELF file
 * @is_interp:	True if the phdr is from the interpreter of the ELF being
 *		loaded, else false.
 * @state:	Architecture-specific state preserved throughout the process
 *		of loading the ELF.
 *
 * Inspects the program header phdr to validate its correctness and/or
 * suitability for the system. Called once per ELF program header in the
 * range PT_LOPROC to PT_HIPROC, for both the ELF being loaded and its
 * interpreter.
 *
 * Return: Zero to proceed with the ELF load, non-zero to fail the ELF load
 *         with that return code.
 */
static inline int arch_elf_pt_proc(struct elfhdr *ehdr,
				   struct elf_phdr *phdr,
				   struct file *elf, bool is_interp,
				   struct arch_elf_state *state)
{
	/* Dummy implementation, always proceed */
	return 0;
}

/**
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 * arch_check_elf() - check an ELF executable
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 * @ehdr:	The main ELF header
 * @has_interp:	True if the ELF has an interpreter, else false.
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 * @interp_ehdr: The interpreter's ELF header
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 * @state:	Architecture-specific state preserved throughout the process
 *		of loading the ELF.
 *
 * Provides a final opportunity for architecture code to reject the loading
 * of the ELF & cause an exec syscall to return an error. This is called after
 * all program headers to be checked by arch_elf_pt_proc have been.
 *
 * Return: Zero to proceed with the ELF load, non-zero to fail the ELF load
 *         with that return code.
 */
static inline int arch_check_elf(struct elfhdr *ehdr, bool has_interp,
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				 struct elfhdr *interp_ehdr,
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				 struct arch_elf_state *state)
{
	/* Dummy implementation, always proceed */
	return 0;
}

#endif /* !CONFIG_ARCH_BINFMT_ELF_STATE */
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/* This is much more generalized than the library routine read function,
   so we keep this separate.  Technically the library read function
   is only provided so that we can read a.out libraries that have
   an ELF header */

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static unsigned long load_elf_interp(struct elfhdr *interp_elf_ex,
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		struct file *interpreter, unsigned long *interp_map_addr,
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		unsigned long no_base, struct elf_phdr *interp_elf_phdata)
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{
	struct elf_phdr *eppnt;
	unsigned long load_addr = 0;
	int load_addr_set = 0;
	unsigned long last_bss = 0, elf_bss = 0;
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	int bss_prot = 0;
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	unsigned long error = ~0UL;
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	unsigned long total_size;
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	int i;
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	/* First of all, some simple consistency checks */
	if (interp_elf_ex->e_type != ET_EXEC &&
	    interp_elf_ex->e_type != ET_DYN)
		goto out;
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	if (!elf_check_arch(interp_elf_ex) ||
	    elf_check_fdpic(interp_elf_ex))
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		goto out;
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	if (!interpreter->f_op->mmap)
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		goto out;

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	total_size = total_mapping_size(interp_elf_phdata,
					interp_elf_ex->e_phnum);
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	if (!total_size) {
		error = -EINVAL;
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		goto out;
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	}

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	eppnt = interp_elf_phdata;
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	for (i = 0; i < interp_elf_ex->e_phnum; i++, eppnt++) {
		if (eppnt->p_type == PT_LOAD) {
			int elf_type = MAP_PRIVATE | MAP_DENYWRITE;
			int elf_prot = 0;
			unsigned long vaddr = 0;
			unsigned long k, map_addr;

			if (eppnt->p_flags & PF_R)
		    		elf_prot = PROT_READ;
			if (eppnt->p_flags & PF_W)
				elf_prot |= PROT_WRITE;
			if (eppnt->p_flags & PF_X)
				elf_prot |= PROT_EXEC;
			vaddr = eppnt->p_vaddr;
			if (interp_elf_ex->e_type == ET_EXEC || load_addr_set)
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				elf_type |= MAP_FIXED_NOREPLACE;
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			else if (no_base && interp_elf_ex->e_type == ET_DYN)
				load_addr = -vaddr;
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			map_addr = elf_map(interpreter, load_addr + vaddr,
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					eppnt, elf_prot, elf_type, total_size);
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			total_size = 0;
			if (!*interp_map_addr)
				*interp_map_addr = map_addr;
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			error = map_addr;
			if (BAD_ADDR(map_addr))
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				goto out;
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			if (!load_addr_set &&
			    interp_elf_ex->e_type == ET_DYN) {
				load_addr = map_addr - ELF_PAGESTART(vaddr);
				load_addr_set = 1;
			}

			/*
			 * Check to see if the section's size will overflow the
			 * allowed task size. Note that p_filesz must always be
			 * <= p_memsize so it's only necessary to check p_memsz.
			 */
			k = load_addr + eppnt->p_vaddr;
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			if (BAD_ADDR(k) ||
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			    eppnt->p_filesz > eppnt->p_memsz ||
			    eppnt->p_memsz > TASK_SIZE ||
			    TASK_SIZE - eppnt->p_memsz < k) {
				error = -ENOMEM;
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				goto out;
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			}

			/*
			 * Find the end of the file mapping for this phdr, and
			 * keep track of the largest address we see for this.
			 */
			k = load_addr + eppnt->p_vaddr + eppnt->p_filesz;
			if (k > elf_bss)
				elf_bss = k;

			/*
			 * Do the same thing for the memory mapping - between
			 * elf_bss and last_bss is the bss section.
			 */
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			k = load_addr + eppnt->p_vaddr + eppnt->p_memsz;
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			if (k > last_bss) {
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				last_bss = k;
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				bss_prot = elf_prot;
			}
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		}
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	}

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	/*
	 * Now fill out the bss section: first pad the last page from
	 * the file up to the page boundary, and zero it from elf_bss
	 * up to the end of the page.
	 */
	if (padzero(elf_bss)) {
		error = -EFAULT;
		goto out;
	}
	/*
	 * Next, align both the file and mem bss up to the page size,
	 * since this is where elf_bss was just zeroed up to, and where
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	 * last_bss will end after the vm_brk_flags() below.
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	 */
	elf_bss = ELF_PAGEALIGN(elf_bss);
	last_bss = ELF_PAGEALIGN(last_bss);
	/* Finally, if there is still more bss to allocate, do it. */
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	if (last_bss > elf_bss) {
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		error = vm_brk_flags(elf_bss, last_bss - elf_bss,
				bss_prot & PROT_EXEC ? VM_EXEC : 0);
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		if (error)
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			goto out;
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	}

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	error = load_addr;
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out:
	return error;
}

/*
 * These are the functions used to load ELF style executables and shared
 * libraries.  There is no binary dependent code anywhere else.
 */

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#ifndef STACK_RND_MASK
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#define STACK_RND_MASK (0x7ff >> (PAGE_SHIFT - 12))	/* 8MB of VA */
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#endif
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static unsigned long randomize_stack_top(unsigned long stack_top)
{
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	unsigned long random_variable = 0;
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	if (current->flags & PF_RANDOMIZE) {
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		random_variable = get_random_long();
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		random_variable &= STACK_RND_MASK;
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		random_variable <<= PAGE_SHIFT;
	}
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#ifdef CONFIG_STACK_GROWSUP
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	return PAGE_ALIGN(stack_top) + random_variable;
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#else
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	return PAGE_ALIGN(stack_top) - random_variable;
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#endif
}

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static int load_elf_binary(struct linux_binprm *bprm)
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{
	struct file *interpreter = NULL; /* to shut gcc up */
 	unsigned long load_addr = 0, load_bias = 0;
	int load_addr_set = 0;
	char * elf_interpreter = NULL;
	unsigned long error;
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	struct elf_phdr *elf_ppnt, *elf_phdata, *interp_elf_phdata = NULL;
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	unsigned long elf_bss, elf_brk;
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	int bss_prot = 0;
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	int retval, i;
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	unsigned long elf_entry;
	unsigned long interp_load_addr = 0;
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	unsigned long start_code, end_code, start_data, end_data;
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	unsigned long reloc_func_desc __maybe_unused = 0;
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	int executable_stack = EXSTACK_DEFAULT;
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	struct pt_regs *regs = current_pt_regs();
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	struct {
		struct elfhdr elf_ex;
		struct elfhdr interp_elf_ex;
	} *loc;
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	struct arch_elf_state arch_state = INIT_ARCH_ELF_STATE;
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	loff_t pos;
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	loc = kmalloc(sizeof(*loc), GFP_KERNEL);
	if (!loc) {
		retval = -ENOMEM;
		goto out_ret;
	}
	
	/* Get the exec-header */
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	loc->elf_ex = *((struct elfhdr *)bprm->buf);
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	retval = -ENOEXEC;
	/* First of all, some simple consistency checks */
	if (memcmp(loc->elf_ex.e_ident, ELFMAG, SELFMAG) != 0)
		goto out;

	if (loc->elf_ex.e_type != ET_EXEC && loc->elf_ex.e_type != ET_DYN)
		goto out;
	if (!elf_check_arch(&loc->elf_ex))
		goto out;
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	if (elf_check_fdpic(&loc->elf_ex))
		goto out;
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	if (!bprm->file->f_op->mmap)
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		goto out;

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	elf_phdata = load_elf_phdrs(&loc->elf_ex, bprm->file);
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	if (!elf_phdata)
		goto out;

	elf_ppnt = elf_phdata;
	elf_bss = 0;
	elf_brk = 0;

	start_code = ~0UL;
	end_code = 0;
	start_data = 0;
	end_data = 0;

	for (i = 0; i < loc->elf_ex.e_phnum; i++) {
		if (elf_ppnt->p_type == PT_INTERP) {
			/* This is the program interpreter used for
			 * shared libraries - for now assume that this
			 * is an a.out format binary
			 */
			retval = -ENOEXEC;
			if (elf_ppnt->p_filesz > PATH_MAX || 
			    elf_ppnt->p_filesz < 2)
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				goto out_free_ph;
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			retval = -ENOMEM;
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			elf_interpreter = kmalloc(elf_ppnt->p_filesz,
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						  GFP_KERNEL);
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			if (!elf_interpreter)
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				goto out_free_ph;
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			pos = elf_ppnt->p_offset;
			retval = kernel_read(bprm->file, elf_interpreter,
					     elf_ppnt->p_filesz, &pos);
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			if (retval != elf_ppnt->p_filesz) {
				if (retval >= 0)
					retval = -EIO;
				goto out_free_interp;
			}
			/* make sure path is NULL terminated */
			retval = -ENOEXEC;
			if (elf_interpreter[elf_ppnt->p_filesz - 1] != '\0')
				goto out_free_interp;

			interpreter = open_exec(elf_interpreter);
			retval = PTR_ERR(interpreter);
			if (IS_ERR(interpreter))
				goto out_free_interp;
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			/*
			 * If the binary is not readable then enforce
			 * mm->dumpable = 0 regardless of the interpreter's
			 * permissions.
			 */
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			would_dump(bprm, interpreter);
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			/* Get the exec headers */
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			pos = 0;
			retval = kernel_read(interpreter, &loc->interp_elf_ex,
					     sizeof(loc->interp_elf_ex), &pos);
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			if (retval != sizeof(loc->interp_elf_ex)) {
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				if (retval >= 0)
					retval = -EIO;
				goto out_free_dentry;
			}

			break;
		}
		elf_ppnt++;
	}

	elf_ppnt = elf_phdata;
	for (i = 0; i < loc->elf_ex.e_phnum; i++, elf_ppnt++)
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		switch (elf_ppnt->p_type) {
		case PT_GNU_STACK:
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			if (elf_ppnt->p_flags & PF_X)
				executable_stack = EXSTACK_ENABLE_X;
			else
				executable_stack = EXSTACK_DISABLE_X;
			break;
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		case PT_LOPROC ... PT_HIPROC:
			retval = arch_elf_pt_proc(&loc->elf_ex, elf_ppnt,
						  bprm->file, false,
						  &arch_state);
			if (retval)
				goto out_free_dentry;
			break;
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		}

	/* Some simple consistency checks for the interpreter */
	if (elf_interpreter) {
		retval = -ELIBBAD;
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		/* Not an ELF interpreter */
		if (memcmp(loc->interp_elf_ex.e_ident, ELFMAG, SELFMAG) != 0)
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			goto out_free_dentry;
		/* Verify the interpreter has a valid arch */
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		if (!elf_check_arch(&loc->interp_elf_ex) ||
		    elf_check_fdpic(&loc->interp_elf_ex))
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			goto out_free_dentry;
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		/* Load the interpreter program headers */
		interp_elf_phdata = load_elf_phdrs(&loc->interp_elf_ex,
						   interpreter);
		if (!interp_elf_phdata)
			goto out_free_dentry;
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		/* Pass PT_LOPROC..PT_HIPROC headers to arch code */
		elf_ppnt = interp_elf_phdata;
		for (i = 0; i < loc->interp_elf_ex.e_phnum; i++, elf_ppnt++)
			switch (elf_ppnt->p_type) {
			case PT_LOPROC ... PT_HIPROC:
				retval = arch_elf_pt_proc(&loc->interp_elf_ex,
							  elf_ppnt, interpreter,
							  true, &arch_state);
				if (retval)
					goto out_free_dentry;
				break;
			}
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	}

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	/*
	 * Allow arch code to reject the ELF at this point, whilst it's
	 * still possible to return an error to the code that invoked
	 * the exec syscall.
	 */
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	retval = arch_check_elf(&loc->elf_ex,
				!!interpreter, &loc->interp_elf_ex,
				&arch_state);
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	if (retval)
		goto out_free_dentry;

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	/* Flush all traces of the currently running executable */
	retval = flush_old_exec(bprm);
	if (retval)
		goto out_free_dentry;

	/* Do this immediately, since STACK_TOP as used in setup_arg_pages
	   may depend on the personality.  */
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	SET_PERSONALITY2(loc->elf_ex, &arch_state);
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	if (elf_read_implies_exec(loc->elf_ex, executable_stack))
		current->personality |= READ_IMPLIES_EXEC;

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	if (!(current->personality & ADDR_NO_RANDOMIZE) && randomize_va_space)
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		current->flags |= PF_RANDOMIZE;
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	setup_new_exec(bprm);
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	install_exec_creds(bprm);
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	/* Do this so that we can load the interpreter, if need be.  We will
	   change some of these later */
	retval = setup_arg_pages(bprm, randomize_stack_top(STACK_TOP),
				 executable_stack);
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	if (retval < 0)
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		goto out_free_dentry;
	
	current->mm->start_stack = bprm->p;

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	/* Now we do a little grungy work by mmapping the ELF image into
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	   the correct location in memory. */
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	for(i = 0, elf_ppnt = elf_phdata;
	    i < loc->elf_ex.e_phnum; i++, elf_ppnt++) {
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		int elf_prot = 0, elf_flags, elf_fixed = MAP_FIXED_NOREPLACE;
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		unsigned long k, vaddr;
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		unsigned long total_size = 0;
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		if (elf_ppnt->p_type != PT_LOAD)
			continue;

		if (unlikely (elf_brk > elf_bss)) {
			unsigned long nbyte;
	            
			/* There was a PT_LOAD segment with p_memsz > p_filesz
			   before this one. Map anonymous pages, if needed,
			   and clear the area.  */
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			retval = set_brk(elf_bss + load_bias,
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					 elf_brk + load_bias,
					 bss_prot);
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			if (retval)
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				goto out_free_dentry;
			nbyte = ELF_PAGEOFFSET(elf_bss);
			if (nbyte) {
				nbyte = ELF_MIN_ALIGN - nbyte;
				if (nbyte > elf_brk - elf_bss)
					nbyte = elf_brk - elf_bss;
				if (clear_user((void __user *)elf_bss +
							load_bias, nbyte)) {
					/*
					 * This bss-zeroing can fail if the ELF
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					 * file specifies odd protections. So
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					 * we don't check the return value
					 */
				}
			}
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			/*
			 * Some binaries have overlapping elf segments and then
			 * we have to forcefully map over an existing mapping
			 * e.g. over this newly established brk mapping.
			 */
			elf_fixed = MAP_FIXED;
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		}

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		if (elf_ppnt->p_flags & PF_R)
			elf_prot |= PROT_READ;
		if (elf_ppnt->p_flags & PF_W)
			elf_prot |= PROT_WRITE;
		if (elf_ppnt->p_flags & PF_X)
			elf_prot |= PROT_EXEC;
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		elf_flags = MAP_PRIVATE | MAP_DENYWRITE | MAP_EXECUTABLE;
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		vaddr = elf_ppnt->p_vaddr;
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		/*
		 * If we are loading ET_EXEC or we have already performed
		 * the ET_DYN load_addr calculations, proceed normally.
		 */
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		if (loc->elf_ex.e_type == ET_EXEC || load_addr_set) {
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			elf_flags |= elf_fixed;
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		} else if (loc->elf_ex.e_type == ET_DYN) {
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			/*
			 * This logic is run once for the first LOAD Program
			 * Header for ET_DYN binaries to calculate the
			 * randomization (load_bias) for all the LOAD
			 * Program Headers, and to calculate the entire
			 * size of the ELF mapping (total_size). (Note that
			 * load_addr_set is set to true later once the
			 * initial mapping is performed.)
			 *
			 * There are effectively two types of ET_DYN
			 * binaries: programs (i.e. PIE: ET_DYN with INTERP)
			 * and loaders (ET_DYN without INTERP, since they
			 * _are_ the ELF interpreter). The loaders must
			 * be loaded away from programs since the program
			 * may otherwise collide with the loader (especially
			 * for ET_EXEC which does not have a randomized
			 * position). For example to handle invocations of
			 * "./ld.so someprog" to test out a new version of
			 * the loader, the subsequent program that the
			 * loader loads must avoid the loader itself, so
			 * they cannot share the same load range. Sufficient
			 * room for the brk must be allocated with the
			 * loader as well, since brk must be available with
			 * the loader.
			 *
			 * Therefore, programs are loaded offset from
			 * ELF_ET_DYN_BASE and loaders are loaded into the
			 * independently randomized mmap region (0 load_bias
			 * without MAP_FIXED).
			 */
			if (elf_interpreter) {
				load_bias = ELF_ET_DYN_BASE;
				if (current->flags & PF_RANDOMIZE)
					load_bias += arch_mmap_rnd();
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				elf_flags |= elf_fixed;
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			} else
				load_bias = 0;

			/*
			 * Since load_bias is used for all subsequent loading
			 * calculations, we must lower it by the first vaddr
			 * so that the remaining calculations based on the
			 * ELF vaddrs will be correctly offset. The result
			 * is then page aligned.
			 */
			load_bias = ELF_PAGESTART(load_bias - vaddr);

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			total_size = total_mapping_size(elf_phdata,
							loc->elf_ex.e_phnum);
			if (!total_size) {
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				retval = -EINVAL;
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				goto out_free_dentry;
			}
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		}

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		error = elf_map(bprm->file, load_bias + vaddr, elf_ppnt,
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				elf_prot, elf_flags, total_size);
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		if (BAD_ADDR(error)) {
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			retval = IS_ERR((void *)error) ?
				PTR_ERR((void*)error) : -EINVAL;
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			goto out_free_dentry;
		}

		if (!load_addr_set) {
			load_addr_set = 1;
			load_addr = (elf_ppnt->p_vaddr - elf_ppnt->p_offset);
			if (loc->elf_ex.e_type == ET_DYN) {
				load_bias += error -
				             ELF_PAGESTART(load_bias + vaddr);
				load_addr += load_bias;
				reloc_func_desc = load_bias;
			}
		}
		k = elf_ppnt->p_vaddr;
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		if (k < start_code)
			start_code = k;
		if (start_data < k)
			start_data = k;
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		/*
		 * Check to see if the section's size will overflow the
		 * allowed task size. Note that p_filesz must always be
		 * <= p_memsz so it is only necessary to check p_memsz.
		 */
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		if (BAD_ADDR(k) || elf_ppnt->p_filesz > elf_ppnt->p_memsz ||
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		    elf_ppnt->p_memsz > TASK_SIZE ||
		    TASK_SIZE - elf_ppnt->p_memsz < k) {
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			/* set_brk can never work. Avoid overflows. */
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			retval = -EINVAL;
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			goto out_free_dentry;
		}

		k = elf_ppnt->p_vaddr + elf_ppnt->p_filesz;

		if (k > elf_bss)
			elf_bss = k;
		if ((elf_ppnt->p_flags & PF_X) && end_code < k)
			end_code = k;
		if (end_data < k)
			end_data = k;
		k = elf_ppnt->p_vaddr + elf_ppnt->p_memsz;
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		if (k > elf_brk) {
			bss_prot = elf_prot;
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			elf_brk = k;
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		}
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	}

	loc->elf_ex.e_entry += load_bias;
	elf_bss += load_bias;
	elf_brk += load_bias;
	start_code += load_bias;
	end_code += load_bias;
	start_data += load_bias;
	end_data += load_bias;

	/* Calling set_brk effectively mmaps the pages that we need
	 * for the bss and break sections.  We must do this before
	 * mapping in the interpreter, to make sure it doesn't wind
	 * up getting placed where the bss needs to go.
	 */
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	retval = set_brk(elf_bss, elf_brk, bss_prot);
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	if (retval)
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		goto out_free_dentry;
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	if (likely(elf_bss != elf_brk) && unlikely(padzero(elf_bss))) {
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		retval = -EFAULT; /* Nobody gets to see this, but.. */
		goto out_free_dentry;
	}

	if (elf_interpreter) {
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		unsigned long interp_map_addr = 0;
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		elf_entry = load_elf_interp(&loc->interp_elf_ex,
					    interpreter,
					    &interp_map_addr,
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					    load_bias, interp_elf_phdata);
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		if (!IS_ERR((void *)elf_entry)) {
			/*
			 * load_elf_interp() returns relocation
			 * adjustment
			 */
			interp_load_addr = elf_entry;
			elf_entry += loc->interp_elf_ex.e_entry;
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		}
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		if (BAD_ADDR(elf_entry)) {
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			retval = IS_ERR((void *)elf_entry) ?
					(int)elf_entry : -EINVAL;
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			goto out_free_dentry;
		}
		reloc_func_desc = interp_load_addr;

		allow_write_access(interpreter);
		fput(interpreter);
		kfree(elf_interpreter);
	} else {
		elf_entry = loc->elf_ex.e_entry;
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		if (BAD_ADDR(elf_entry)) {
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			retval = -EINVAL;
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			goto out_free_dentry;
		}
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	}

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	kfree(interp_elf_phdata);
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	kfree(elf_phdata);

	set_binfmt(&elf_format);

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#ifdef ARCH_HAS_SETUP_ADDITIONAL_PAGES
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	retval = arch_setup_additional_pages(bprm, !!elf_interpreter);
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	if (retval < 0)
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		goto out;
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#endif /* ARCH_HAS_SETUP_ADDITIONAL_PAGES */

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	retval = create_elf_tables(bprm, &loc->elf_ex,
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			  load_addr, interp_load_addr);
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	if (retval < 0)
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		goto out;
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	/* N.B. passed_fileno might not be initialized? */
	current->mm->end_code = end_code;
	current->mm->start_code = start_code;
	current->mm->start_data = start_data;
	current->mm->end_data = end_data;
	current->mm->start_stack = bprm->p;

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	if ((current->flags & PF_RANDOMIZE) && (randomize_va_space > 1)) {
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		current->mm->brk = current->mm->start_brk =
			arch_randomize_brk(current->mm);
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#ifdef compat_brk_randomized
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		current->brk_randomized = 1;
#endif
	}
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	if (current->personality & MMAP_PAGE_ZERO) {
		/* Why this, you ask???  Well SVr4 maps page 0 as read-only,
		   and some applications "depend" upon this behavior.
		   Since we do not have the power to recompile these, we
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		   emulate the SVr4 behavior. Sigh. */
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		error = vm_mmap(NULL, 0, PAGE_SIZE, PROT_READ | PROT_EXEC,
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				MAP_FIXED | MAP_PRIVATE, 0);
	}

#ifdef ELF_PLAT_INIT
	/*
	 * The ABI may specify that certain registers be set up in special
	 * ways (on i386 %edx is the address of a DT_FINI function, for
	 * example.  In addition, it may also specify (eg, PowerPC64 ELF)
	 * that the e_entry field is the address of the function descriptor
	 * for the startup routine, rather than the address of the startup
	 * routine itself.  This macro performs whatever initialization to
	 * the regs structure is required as well as any relocations to the
	 * function descriptor entries when executing dynamically links apps.
	 */
	ELF_PLAT_INIT(regs, reloc_func_desc);
#endif

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	finalize_exec(bprm);
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	start_thread(regs, elf_entry, bprm->p);
	retval = 0;
out:
	kfree(loc);
out_ret:
	return retval;

	/* error cleanup */
out_free_dentry:
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	kfree(interp_elf_phdata);
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	allow_write_access(interpreter);
	if (interpreter)
		fput(interpreter);
out_free_interp:
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	kfree(elf_interpreter);
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out_free_ph:
	kfree(elf_phdata);
	goto out;
}

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#ifdef CONFIG_USELIB
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/* This is really simpleminded and specialized - we are loading an
   a.out library that is given an ELF header. */
static int load_elf_library(struct file *file)
{
	struct elf_phdr *elf_phdata;
	struct elf_phdr *eppnt;
	unsigned long elf_bss, bss, len;
	int retval, error, i, j;
	struct elfhdr elf_ex;
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	loff_t pos = 0;
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	error = -ENOEXEC;
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	retval = kernel_read(file, &elf_ex, sizeof(elf_ex), &pos);
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	if (retval != sizeof(elf_ex))
		goto out;

	if (memcmp(elf_ex.e_ident, ELFMAG, SELFMAG) != 0)
		goto out;

	/* First of all, some simple consistency checks */
	if (elf_ex.e_type != ET_EXEC || elf_ex.e_phnum > 2 ||
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	    !elf_check_arch(&elf_ex) || !file->f_op->mmap)
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		goto out;
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	if (elf_check_fdpic(&elf_ex))
		goto out;
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	/* Now read in all of the header information */

	j = sizeof(struct elf_phdr) * elf_ex.e_phnum;
	/* j < ELF_MIN_ALIGN because elf_ex.e_phnum <= 2 */

	error = -ENOMEM;
	elf_phdata = kmalloc(j, GFP_KERNEL);
	if (!elf_phdata)
		goto out;

	eppnt = elf_phdata;
	error = -ENOEXEC;
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	pos =  elf_ex.e_phoff;
	retval = kernel_read(file, eppnt, j, &pos);
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	if (retval != j)
		goto out_free_ph;

	for (j = 0, i = 0; i<elf_ex.e_phnum; i++)
		if ((eppnt + i)->p_type == PT_LOAD)
			j++;
	if (j != 1)
		goto out_free_ph;

	while (eppnt->p_type != PT_LOAD)
		eppnt++;

	/* Now use mmap to map the library into memory. */
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	error = vm_mmap(file,
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			ELF_PAGESTART(eppnt->p_vaddr),
			(eppnt->p_filesz +
			 ELF_PAGEOFFSET(eppnt->p_vaddr)),
			PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE | PROT_EXEC,
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			MAP_FIXED_NOREPLACE | MAP_PRIVATE | MAP_DENYWRITE,
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			(eppnt->p_offset -
			 ELF_PAGEOFFSET(eppnt->p_vaddr)));
	if (error != ELF_PAGESTART(eppnt->p_vaddr))
		goto out_free_ph;

	elf_bss = eppnt->p_vaddr + eppnt->p_filesz;
	if (padzero(elf_bss)) {
		error = -EFAULT;
		goto out_free_ph;
	}

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	len = ELF_PAGESTART(eppnt->p_filesz + eppnt->p_vaddr +
			    ELF_MIN_ALIGN - 1);
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	bss = eppnt->p_memsz + eppnt->p_vaddr;
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	if (bss > len) {
		error = vm_brk(len, bss - len);
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		if (error)
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			goto out_free_ph;
	}
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	error = 0;

out_free_ph:
	kfree(elf_phdata);
out:
	return error;
}
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#endif /* #ifdef CONFIG_USELIB */
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#ifdef CONFIG_ELF_CORE
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/*
 * ELF core dumper
 *
 * Modelled on fs/exec.c:aout_core_dump()
 * Jeremy Fitzhardinge <jeremy@sw.oz.au>
 */

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/*
 * The purpose of always_dump_vma() is to make sure that special kernel mappings
 * that are useful for post-mortem analysis are included in every core dump.
 * In that way we ensure that the core dump is fully interpretable later
 * without matching up the same kernel and hardware config to see what PC values
 * meant. These special mappings include - vDSO, vsyscall, and other
 * architecture specific mappings
 */
static bool always_dump_vma(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
{
	/* Any vsyscall mappings? */
	if (vma == get_gate_vma(vma->vm_mm))
		return true;
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	/*
	 * Assume that all vmas