Commit 9c276cc6 authored by Minchan Kim's avatar Minchan Kim Committed by Linus Torvalds
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mm: introduce MADV_COLD

Patch series "Introduce MADV_COLD and MADV_PAGEOUT", v7.

- Background

The Android terminology used for forking a new process and starting an app
from scratch is a cold start, while resuming an existing app is a hot
start.  While we continually try to improve the performance of cold
starts, hot starts will always be significantly less power hungry as well
as faster so we are trying to make hot start more likely than cold start.

To increase hot start, Android userspace manages the order that apps
should be killed in a process called ActivityManagerService.
ActivityManagerService tracks every Android app or service that the user
could be interacting with at any time and translates that into a ranked
list for lmkd(low memory killer daemon).  They are likely to be killed by
lmkd if the system has to reclaim memory.  In that sense they are similar
to entries in any other cache.  Those apps are kept alive for
opportunistic performance improvements but those performance improvements
will vary based on the memory requirements of individual workloads.

- Problem

Naturally, cached apps were dominant consumers of memory on the system.
However, they were not significant consumers of swap even though they are
good candidate for swap.  Under investigation, swapping out only begins
once the low zone watermark is hit and kswapd wakes up, but the overall
allocation rate in the system might trip lmkd thresholds and cause a
cached process to be killed(we measured performance swapping out vs.
zapping the memory by killing a process.  Unsurprisingly, zapping is 10x
times faster even though we use zram which is much faster than real
storage) so kill from lmkd will often satisfy the high zone watermark,
resulting in very few pages actually being moved to swap.

- Approach

The approach we chose was to use a new interface to allow userspace to
proactively reclaim entire processes by leveraging platform information.
This allowed us to bypass the inaccuracy of the kernel’s LRUs for pages
that are known to be cold from userspace and to avoid races with lmkd by
reclaiming apps as soon as they entered the cached state.  Additionally,
it could provide many chances for platform to use much information to
optimize memory efficiency.

To achieve the goal, the patchset introduce two new options for madvise.
One is MADV_COLD which will deactivate activated pages and the other is
MADV_PAGEOUT which will reclaim private pages instantly.  These new
options complement MADV_DONTNEED and MADV_FREE by adding non-destructive
ways to gain some free memory space.  MADV_PAGEOUT is similar to
MADV_DONTNEED in a way that it hints the kernel that memory region is not
currently needed and should be reclaimed immediately; MADV_COLD is similar
to MADV_FREE in a way that it hints the kernel that memory region is not
currently needed and should be reclaimed when memory pressure rises.

This patch (of 5):

When a process expects no accesses to a certain memory range, it could
give a hint to kernel that the pages can be reclaimed when memory pressure
happens but data should be preserved for future use.  This could reduce
workingset eviction so it ends up increasing performance.

This patch introduces the new MADV_COLD hint to madvise(2) syscall.
MADV_COLD can be used by a process to mark a memory range as not expected
to be used in the near future.  The hint can help kernel in deciding which
pages to evict early during memory pressure.

It works for every LRU pages like MADV_[DONTNEED|FREE]. IOW, It moves

	active file page -> inactive file LRU
	active anon page -> inacdtive anon LRU

Unlike MADV_FREE, it doesn't move active anonymous pages to inactive file
LRU's head because MADV_COLD is a little bit different symantic.
MADV_FREE means it's okay to discard when the memory pressure because the
content of the page is *garbage* so freeing such pages is almost zero
overhead since we don't need to swap out and access afterward causes just
minor fault.  Thus, it would make sense to put those freeable pages in
inactive file LRU to compete other used-once pages.  It makes sense for
implmentaion point of view, too because it's not swapbacked memory any
longer until it would be re-dirtied.  Even, it could give a bonus to make
them be reclaimed on swapless system.  However, MADV_COLD doesn't mean
garbage so reclaiming them requires swap-out/in in the end so it's bigger
cost.  Since we have designed VM LRU aging based on cost-model, anonymous
cold pages would be better to position inactive anon's LRU list, not file
LRU.  Furthermore, it would help to avoid unnecessary scanning if system
doesn't have a swap device.  Let's start simpler way without adding
complexity at this moment.  However, keep in mind, too that it's a caveat
that workloads with a lot of pages cache are likely to ignore MADV_COLD on
anonymous memory because we rarely age anonymous LRU lists.

* man-page material

MADV_COLD (since Linux x.x)

Pages in the specified regions will be treated as less-recently-accessed
compared to pages in the system with similar access frequencies.  In
contrast to MADV_FREE, the contents of the region are preserved regardless
of subsequent writes to pages.

MADV_COLD cannot be applied to locked pages, Huge TLB pages, or VM_PFNMAP
pages.

[akpm@linux-foundation.org: resolve conflicts with hmm.git]
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190726023435.214162-2-minchan@kernel.org

Signed-off-by: default avatarMinchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org>
Reported-by: default avatarkbuild test robot <lkp@intel.com>
Acked-by: default avatarMichal Hocko <mhocko@suse.com>
Acked-by: default avatarJohannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
Cc: James E.J. Bottomley <James.Bottomley@HansenPartnership.com>
Cc: Richard Henderson <rth@twiddle.net>
Cc: Ralf Baechle <ralf@linux-mips.org>
Cc: Chris Zankel <chris@zankel.net>
Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
Cc: Daniel Colascione <dancol@google.com>
Cc: Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@intel.com>
Cc: Hillf Danton <hdanton@sina.com>
Cc: Joel Fernandes (Google) <joel@joelfernandes.org>
Cc: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Oleksandr Natalenko <oleksandr@redhat.com>
Cc: Shakeel Butt <shakeelb@google.com>
Cc: Sonny Rao <sonnyrao@google.com>
Cc: Suren Baghdasaryan <surenb@google.com>
Cc: Tim Murray <timmurray@google.com>
Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
parent ce18d171
......@@ -68,6 +68,8 @@
#define MADV_WIPEONFORK 18 /* Zero memory on fork, child only */
#define MADV_KEEPONFORK 19 /* Undo MADV_WIPEONFORK */
#define MADV_COLD 20 /* deactivate these pages */
/* compatibility flags */
#define MAP_FILE 0
......
......@@ -95,6 +95,8 @@
#define MADV_WIPEONFORK 18 /* Zero memory on fork, child only */
#define MADV_KEEPONFORK 19 /* Undo MADV_WIPEONFORK */
#define MADV_COLD 20 /* deactivate these pages */
/* compatibility flags */
#define MAP_FILE 0
......
......@@ -48,6 +48,8 @@
#define MADV_DONTFORK 10 /* don't inherit across fork */
#define MADV_DOFORK 11 /* do inherit across fork */
#define MADV_COLD 20 /* deactivate these pages */
#define MADV_MERGEABLE 65 /* KSM may merge identical pages */
#define MADV_UNMERGEABLE 66 /* KSM may not merge identical pages */
......
......@@ -103,6 +103,8 @@
#define MADV_WIPEONFORK 18 /* Zero memory on fork, child only */
#define MADV_KEEPONFORK 19 /* Undo MADV_WIPEONFORK */
#define MADV_COLD 20 /* deactivate these pages */
/* compatibility flags */
#define MAP_FILE 0
......
......@@ -340,6 +340,7 @@ extern void lru_add_drain_cpu(int cpu);
extern void lru_add_drain_all(void);
extern void rotate_reclaimable_page(struct page *page);
extern void deactivate_file_page(struct page *page);
extern void deactivate_page(struct page *page);
extern void mark_page_lazyfree(struct page *page);
extern void swap_setup(void);
......
......@@ -67,6 +67,8 @@
#define MADV_WIPEONFORK 18 /* Zero memory on fork, child only */
#define MADV_KEEPONFORK 19 /* Undo MADV_WIPEONFORK */
#define MADV_COLD 20 /* deactivate these pages */
/* compatibility flags */
#define MAP_FILE 0
......
......@@ -39,7 +39,7 @@ vm_fault_t do_swap_page(struct vm_fault *vmf);
void free_pgtables(struct mmu_gather *tlb, struct vm_area_struct *start_vma,
unsigned long floor, unsigned long ceiling);
static inline bool can_madv_dontneed_vma(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
static inline bool can_madv_lru_vma(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
{
return !(vma->vm_flags & (VM_LOCKED|VM_HUGETLB|VM_PFNMAP));
}
......
......@@ -11,6 +11,7 @@
#include <linux/syscalls.h>
#include <linux/mempolicy.h>
#include <linux/page-isolation.h>
#include <linux/page_idle.h>
#include <linux/userfaultfd_k.h>
#include <linux/hugetlb.h>
#include <linux/falloc.h>
......@@ -42,6 +43,7 @@ static int madvise_need_mmap_write(int behavior)
case MADV_REMOVE:
case MADV_WILLNEED:
case MADV_DONTNEED:
case MADV_COLD:
case MADV_FREE:
return 0;
default:
......@@ -289,6 +291,176 @@ static long madvise_willneed(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
return 0;
}
static int madvise_cold_pte_range(pmd_t *pmd, unsigned long addr,
unsigned long end, struct mm_walk *walk)
{
struct mmu_gather *tlb = walk->private;
struct mm_struct *mm = tlb->mm;
struct vm_area_struct *vma = walk->vma;
pte_t *orig_pte, *pte, ptent;
spinlock_t *ptl;
struct page *page;
#ifdef CONFIG_TRANSPARENT_HUGEPAGE
if (pmd_trans_huge(*pmd)) {
pmd_t orig_pmd;
unsigned long next = pmd_addr_end(addr, end);
tlb_change_page_size(tlb, HPAGE_PMD_SIZE);
ptl = pmd_trans_huge_lock(pmd, vma);
if (!ptl)
return 0;
orig_pmd = *pmd;
if (is_huge_zero_pmd(orig_pmd))
goto huge_unlock;
if (unlikely(!pmd_present(orig_pmd))) {
VM_BUG_ON(thp_migration_supported() &&
!is_pmd_migration_entry(orig_pmd));
goto huge_unlock;
}
page = pmd_page(orig_pmd);
if (next - addr != HPAGE_PMD_SIZE) {
int err;
if (page_mapcount(page) != 1)
goto huge_unlock;
get_page(page);
spin_unlock(ptl);
lock_page(page);
err = split_huge_page(page);
unlock_page(page);
put_page(page);
if (!err)
goto regular_page;
return 0;
}
if (pmd_young(orig_pmd)) {
pmdp_invalidate(vma, addr, pmd);
orig_pmd = pmd_mkold(orig_pmd);
set_pmd_at(mm, addr, pmd, orig_pmd);
tlb_remove_pmd_tlb_entry(tlb, pmd, addr);
}
test_and_clear_page_young(page);
deactivate_page(page);
huge_unlock:
spin_unlock(ptl);
return 0;
}
if (pmd_trans_unstable(pmd))
return 0;
regular_page:
#endif
tlb_change_page_size(tlb, PAGE_SIZE);
orig_pte = pte = pte_offset_map_lock(vma->vm_mm, pmd, addr, &ptl);
flush_tlb_batched_pending(mm);
arch_enter_lazy_mmu_mode();
for (; addr < end; pte++, addr += PAGE_SIZE) {
ptent = *pte;
if (pte_none(ptent))
continue;
if (!pte_present(ptent))
continue;
page = vm_normal_page(vma, addr, ptent);
if (!page)
continue;
/*
* Creating a THP page is expensive so split it only if we
* are sure it's worth. Split it if we are only owner.
*/
if (PageTransCompound(page)) {
if (page_mapcount(page) != 1)
break;
get_page(page);
if (!trylock_page(page)) {
put_page(page);
break;
}
pte_unmap_unlock(orig_pte, ptl);
if (split_huge_page(page)) {
unlock_page(page);
put_page(page);
pte_offset_map_lock(mm, pmd, addr, &ptl);
break;
}
unlock_page(page);
put_page(page);
pte = pte_offset_map_lock(mm, pmd, addr, &ptl);
pte--;
addr -= PAGE_SIZE;
continue;
}
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(PageTransCompound(page), page);
if (pte_young(ptent)) {
ptent = ptep_get_and_clear_full(mm, addr, pte,
tlb->fullmm);
ptent = pte_mkold(ptent);
set_pte_at(mm, addr, pte, ptent);
tlb_remove_tlb_entry(tlb, pte, addr);
}
/*
* We are deactivating a page for accelerating reclaiming.
* VM couldn't reclaim the page unless we clear PG_young.
* As a side effect, it makes confuse idle-page tracking
* because they will miss recent referenced history.
*/
test_and_clear_page_young(page);
deactivate_page(page);
}
arch_leave_lazy_mmu_mode();
pte_unmap_unlock(orig_pte, ptl);
cond_resched();
return 0;
}
static const struct mm_walk_ops cold_walk_ops = {
.pmd_entry = madvise_cold_pte_range,
};
static void madvise_cold_page_range(struct mmu_gather *tlb,
struct vm_area_struct *vma,
unsigned long addr, unsigned long end)
{
tlb_start_vma(tlb, vma);
walk_page_range(vma->vm_mm, addr, end, &cold_walk_ops, NULL);
tlb_end_vma(tlb, vma);
}
static long madvise_cold(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
struct vm_area_struct **prev,
unsigned long start_addr, unsigned long end_addr)
{
struct mm_struct *mm = vma->vm_mm;
struct mmu_gather tlb;
*prev = vma;
if (!can_madv_lru_vma(vma))
return -EINVAL;
lru_add_drain();
tlb_gather_mmu(&tlb, mm, start_addr, end_addr);
madvise_cold_page_range(&tlb, vma, start_addr, end_addr);
tlb_finish_mmu(&tlb, start_addr, end_addr);
return 0;
}
static int madvise_free_pte_range(pmd_t *pmd, unsigned long addr,
unsigned long end, struct mm_walk *walk)
......@@ -493,7 +665,7 @@ static long madvise_dontneed_free(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
int behavior)
{
*prev = vma;
if (!can_madv_dontneed_vma(vma))
if (!can_madv_lru_vma(vma))
return -EINVAL;
if (!userfaultfd_remove(vma, start, end)) {
......@@ -515,7 +687,7 @@ static long madvise_dontneed_free(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
*/
return -ENOMEM;
}
if (!can_madv_dontneed_vma(vma))
if (!can_madv_lru_vma(vma))
return -EINVAL;
if (end > vma->vm_end) {
/*
......@@ -669,6 +841,8 @@ madvise_vma(struct vm_area_struct *vma, struct vm_area_struct **prev,
return madvise_remove(vma, prev, start, end);
case MADV_WILLNEED:
return madvise_willneed(vma, prev, start, end);
case MADV_COLD:
return madvise_cold(vma, prev, start, end);
case MADV_FREE:
case MADV_DONTNEED:
return madvise_dontneed_free(vma, prev, start, end, behavior);
......@@ -690,6 +864,7 @@ madvise_behavior_valid(int behavior)
case MADV_WILLNEED:
case MADV_DONTNEED:
case MADV_FREE:
case MADV_COLD:
#ifdef CONFIG_KSM
case MADV_MERGEABLE:
case MADV_UNMERGEABLE:
......
......@@ -523,7 +523,7 @@ bool __oom_reap_task_mm(struct mm_struct *mm)
set_bit(MMF_UNSTABLE, &mm->flags);
for (vma = mm->mmap ; vma; vma = vma->vm_next) {
if (!can_madv_dontneed_vma(vma))
if (!can_madv_lru_vma(vma))
continue;
/*
......
......@@ -47,6 +47,7 @@ int page_cluster;
static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct pagevec, lru_add_pvec);
static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct pagevec, lru_rotate_pvecs);
static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct pagevec, lru_deactivate_file_pvecs);
static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct pagevec, lru_deactivate_pvecs);
static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct pagevec, lru_lazyfree_pvecs);
#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct pagevec, activate_page_pvecs);
......@@ -538,6 +539,22 @@ static void lru_deactivate_file_fn(struct page *page, struct lruvec *lruvec,
update_page_reclaim_stat(lruvec, file, 0);
}
static void lru_deactivate_fn(struct page *page, struct lruvec *lruvec,
void *arg)
{
if (PageLRU(page) && PageActive(page) && !PageUnevictable(page)) {
int file = page_is_file_cache(page);
int lru = page_lru_base_type(page);
del_page_from_lru_list(page, lruvec, lru + LRU_ACTIVE);
ClearPageActive(page);
ClearPageReferenced(page);
add_page_to_lru_list(page, lruvec, lru);
__count_vm_events(PGDEACTIVATE, hpage_nr_pages(page));
update_page_reclaim_stat(lruvec, file, 0);
}
}
static void lru_lazyfree_fn(struct page *page, struct lruvec *lruvec,
void *arg)
......@@ -590,6 +607,10 @@ void lru_add_drain_cpu(int cpu)
if (pagevec_count(pvec))
pagevec_lru_move_fn(pvec, lru_deactivate_file_fn, NULL);
pvec = &per_cpu(lru_deactivate_pvecs, cpu);
if (pagevec_count(pvec))
pagevec_lru_move_fn(pvec, lru_deactivate_fn, NULL);
pvec = &per_cpu(lru_lazyfree_pvecs, cpu);
if (pagevec_count(pvec))
pagevec_lru_move_fn(pvec, lru_lazyfree_fn, NULL);
......@@ -623,6 +644,26 @@ void deactivate_file_page(struct page *page)
}
}
/*
* deactivate_page - deactivate a page
* @page: page to deactivate
*
* deactivate_page() moves @page to the inactive list if @page was on the active
* list and was not an unevictable page. This is done to accelerate the reclaim
* of @page.
*/
void deactivate_page(struct page *page)
{
if (PageLRU(page) && PageActive(page) && !PageUnevictable(page)) {
struct pagevec *pvec = &get_cpu_var(lru_deactivate_pvecs);
get_page(page);
if (!pagevec_add(pvec, page) || PageCompound(page))
pagevec_lru_move_fn(pvec, lru_deactivate_fn, NULL);
put_cpu_var(lru_deactivate_pvecs);
}
}
/**
* mark_page_lazyfree - make an anon page lazyfree
* @page: page to deactivate
......@@ -687,6 +728,7 @@ void lru_add_drain_all(void)
if (pagevec_count(&per_cpu(lru_add_pvec, cpu)) ||
pagevec_count(&per_cpu(lru_rotate_pvecs, cpu)) ||
pagevec_count(&per_cpu(lru_deactivate_file_pvecs, cpu)) ||
pagevec_count(&per_cpu(lru_deactivate_pvecs, cpu)) ||
pagevec_count(&per_cpu(lru_lazyfree_pvecs, cpu)) ||
need_activate_page_drain(cpu)) {
INIT_WORK(work, lru_add_drain_per_cpu);
......
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