slub.c 103 KB
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/*
 * SLUB: A slab allocator that limits cache line use instead of queuing
 * objects in per cpu and per node lists.
 *
 * The allocator synchronizes using per slab locks and only
 * uses a centralized lock to manage a pool of partial slabs.
 *
 * (C) 2007 SGI, Christoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com>
 */

#include <linux/mm.h>
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/bit_spinlock.h>
#include <linux/interrupt.h>
#include <linux/bitops.h>
#include <linux/slab.h>
#include <linux/seq_file.h>
#include <linux/cpu.h>
#include <linux/cpuset.h>
#include <linux/mempolicy.h>
#include <linux/ctype.h>
#include <linux/kallsyms.h>
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#include <linux/memory.h>
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/*
 * Lock order:
 *   1. slab_lock(page)
 *   2. slab->list_lock
 *
 *   The slab_lock protects operations on the object of a particular
 *   slab and its metadata in the page struct. If the slab lock
 *   has been taken then no allocations nor frees can be performed
 *   on the objects in the slab nor can the slab be added or removed
 *   from the partial or full lists since this would mean modifying
 *   the page_struct of the slab.
 *
 *   The list_lock protects the partial and full list on each node and
 *   the partial slab counter. If taken then no new slabs may be added or
 *   removed from the lists nor make the number of partial slabs be modified.
 *   (Note that the total number of slabs is an atomic value that may be
 *   modified without taking the list lock).
 *
 *   The list_lock is a centralized lock and thus we avoid taking it as
 *   much as possible. As long as SLUB does not have to handle partial
 *   slabs, operations can continue without any centralized lock. F.e.
 *   allocating a long series of objects that fill up slabs does not require
 *   the list lock.
 *
 *   The lock order is sometimes inverted when we are trying to get a slab
 *   off a list. We take the list_lock and then look for a page on the list
 *   to use. While we do that objects in the slabs may be freed. We can
 *   only operate on the slab if we have also taken the slab_lock. So we use
 *   a slab_trylock() on the slab. If trylock was successful then no frees
 *   can occur anymore and we can use the slab for allocations etc. If the
 *   slab_trylock() does not succeed then frees are in progress in the slab and
 *   we must stay away from it for a while since we may cause a bouncing
 *   cacheline if we try to acquire the lock. So go onto the next slab.
 *   If all pages are busy then we may allocate a new slab instead of reusing
 *   a partial slab. A new slab has noone operating on it and thus there is
 *   no danger of cacheline contention.
 *
 *   Interrupts are disabled during allocation and deallocation in order to
 *   make the slab allocator safe to use in the context of an irq. In addition
 *   interrupts are disabled to ensure that the processor does not change
 *   while handling per_cpu slabs, due to kernel preemption.
 *
 * SLUB assigns one slab for allocation to each processor.
 * Allocations only occur from these slabs called cpu slabs.
 *
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 * Slabs with free elements are kept on a partial list and during regular
 * operations no list for full slabs is used. If an object in a full slab is
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 * freed then the slab will show up again on the partial lists.
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 * We track full slabs for debugging purposes though because otherwise we
 * cannot scan all objects.
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 *
 * Slabs are freed when they become empty. Teardown and setup is
 * minimal so we rely on the page allocators per cpu caches for
 * fast frees and allocs.
 *
 * Overloading of page flags that are otherwise used for LRU management.
 *
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 * PageActive 		The slab is frozen and exempt from list processing.
 * 			This means that the slab is dedicated to a purpose
 * 			such as satisfying allocations for a specific
 * 			processor. Objects may be freed in the slab while
 * 			it is frozen but slab_free will then skip the usual
 * 			list operations. It is up to the processor holding
 * 			the slab to integrate the slab into the slab lists
 * 			when the slab is no longer needed.
 *
 * 			One use of this flag is to mark slabs that are
 * 			used for allocations. Then such a slab becomes a cpu
 * 			slab. The cpu slab may be equipped with an additional
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 * 			freelist that allows lockless access to
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 * 			free objects in addition to the regular freelist
 * 			that requires the slab lock.
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 *
 * PageError		Slab requires special handling due to debug
 * 			options set. This moves	slab handling out of
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 * 			the fast path and disables lockless freelists.
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 */

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#define FROZEN (1 << PG_active)

#ifdef CONFIG_SLUB_DEBUG
#define SLABDEBUG (1 << PG_error)
#else
#define SLABDEBUG 0
#endif

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static inline int SlabFrozen(struct page *page)
{
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	return page->flags & FROZEN;
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}

static inline void SetSlabFrozen(struct page *page)
{
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	page->flags |= FROZEN;
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}

static inline void ClearSlabFrozen(struct page *page)
{
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	page->flags &= ~FROZEN;
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}

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static inline int SlabDebug(struct page *page)
{
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	return page->flags & SLABDEBUG;
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}

static inline void SetSlabDebug(struct page *page)
{
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	page->flags |= SLABDEBUG;
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}

static inline void ClearSlabDebug(struct page *page)
{
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	page->flags &= ~SLABDEBUG;
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}

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/*
 * Issues still to be resolved:
 *
 * - Support PAGE_ALLOC_DEBUG. Should be easy to do.
 *
 * - Variable sizing of the per node arrays
 */

/* Enable to test recovery from slab corruption on boot */
#undef SLUB_RESILIENCY_TEST

#if PAGE_SHIFT <= 12

/*
 * Small page size. Make sure that we do not fragment memory
 */
#define DEFAULT_MAX_ORDER 1
#define DEFAULT_MIN_OBJECTS 4

#else

/*
 * Large page machines are customarily able to handle larger
 * page orders.
 */
#define DEFAULT_MAX_ORDER 2
#define DEFAULT_MIN_OBJECTS 8

#endif

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/*
 * Mininum number of partial slabs. These will be left on the partial
 * lists even if they are empty. kmem_cache_shrink may reclaim them.
 */
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#define MIN_PARTIAL 5
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/*
 * Maximum number of desirable partial slabs.
 * The existence of more partial slabs makes kmem_cache_shrink
 * sort the partial list by the number of objects in the.
 */
#define MAX_PARTIAL 10

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#define DEBUG_DEFAULT_FLAGS (SLAB_DEBUG_FREE | SLAB_RED_ZONE | \
				SLAB_POISON | SLAB_STORE_USER)
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/*
 * Set of flags that will prevent slab merging
 */
#define SLUB_NEVER_MERGE (SLAB_RED_ZONE | SLAB_POISON | SLAB_STORE_USER | \
		SLAB_TRACE | SLAB_DESTROY_BY_RCU)

#define SLUB_MERGE_SAME (SLAB_DEBUG_FREE | SLAB_RECLAIM_ACCOUNT | \
		SLAB_CACHE_DMA)

#ifndef ARCH_KMALLOC_MINALIGN
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#define ARCH_KMALLOC_MINALIGN __alignof__(unsigned long long)
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#endif

#ifndef ARCH_SLAB_MINALIGN
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#define ARCH_SLAB_MINALIGN __alignof__(unsigned long long)
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#endif

/* Internal SLUB flags */
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#define __OBJECT_POISON		0x80000000 /* Poison object */
#define __SYSFS_ADD_DEFERRED	0x40000000 /* Not yet visible via sysfs */
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#define __KMALLOC_CACHE		0x20000000 /* objects freed using kfree */
#define __PAGE_ALLOC_FALLBACK	0x10000000 /* Allow fallback to page alloc */
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/* Not all arches define cache_line_size */
#ifndef cache_line_size
#define cache_line_size()	L1_CACHE_BYTES
#endif

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static int kmem_size = sizeof(struct kmem_cache);

#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
static struct notifier_block slab_notifier;
#endif

static enum {
	DOWN,		/* No slab functionality available */
	PARTIAL,	/* kmem_cache_open() works but kmalloc does not */
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	UP,		/* Everything works but does not show up in sysfs */
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	SYSFS		/* Sysfs up */
} slab_state = DOWN;

/* A list of all slab caches on the system */
static DECLARE_RWSEM(slub_lock);
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static LIST_HEAD(slab_caches);
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/*
 * Tracking user of a slab.
 */
struct track {
	void *addr;		/* Called from address */
	int cpu;		/* Was running on cpu */
	int pid;		/* Pid context */
	unsigned long when;	/* When did the operation occur */
};

enum track_item { TRACK_ALLOC, TRACK_FREE };

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#if defined(CONFIG_SYSFS) && defined(CONFIG_SLUB_DEBUG)
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static int sysfs_slab_add(struct kmem_cache *);
static int sysfs_slab_alias(struct kmem_cache *, const char *);
static void sysfs_slab_remove(struct kmem_cache *);
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#else
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static inline int sysfs_slab_add(struct kmem_cache *s) { return 0; }
static inline int sysfs_slab_alias(struct kmem_cache *s, const char *p)
							{ return 0; }
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static inline void sysfs_slab_remove(struct kmem_cache *s)
{
	kfree(s);
}
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#endif

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static inline void stat(struct kmem_cache_cpu *c, enum stat_item si)
{
#ifdef CONFIG_SLUB_STATS
	c->stat[si]++;
#endif
}

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/********************************************************************
 * 			Core slab cache functions
 *******************************************************************/

int slab_is_available(void)
{
	return slab_state >= UP;
}

static inline struct kmem_cache_node *get_node(struct kmem_cache *s, int node)
{
#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
	return s->node[node];
#else
	return &s->local_node;
#endif
}

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static inline struct kmem_cache_cpu *get_cpu_slab(struct kmem_cache *s, int cpu)
{
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#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
	return s->cpu_slab[cpu];
#else
	return &s->cpu_slab;
#endif
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}

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/* Verify that a pointer has an address that is valid within a slab page */
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static inline int check_valid_pointer(struct kmem_cache *s,
				struct page *page, const void *object)
{
	void *base;

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	if (!object)
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		return 1;

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	base = page_address(page);
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	if (object < base || object >= base + s->objects * s->size ||
		(object - base) % s->size) {
		return 0;
	}

	return 1;
}

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/*
 * Slow version of get and set free pointer.
 *
 * This version requires touching the cache lines of kmem_cache which
 * we avoid to do in the fast alloc free paths. There we obtain the offset
 * from the page struct.
 */
static inline void *get_freepointer(struct kmem_cache *s, void *object)
{
	return *(void **)(object + s->offset);
}

static inline void set_freepointer(struct kmem_cache *s, void *object, void *fp)
{
	*(void **)(object + s->offset) = fp;
}

/* Loop over all objects in a slab */
#define for_each_object(__p, __s, __addr) \
	for (__p = (__addr); __p < (__addr) + (__s)->objects * (__s)->size;\
			__p += (__s)->size)

/* Scan freelist */
#define for_each_free_object(__p, __s, __free) \
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	for (__p = (__free); __p; __p = get_freepointer((__s), __p))
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/* Determine object index from a given position */
static inline int slab_index(void *p, struct kmem_cache *s, void *addr)
{
	return (p - addr) / s->size;
}

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#ifdef CONFIG_SLUB_DEBUG
/*
 * Debug settings:
 */
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#ifdef CONFIG_SLUB_DEBUG_ON
static int slub_debug = DEBUG_DEFAULT_FLAGS;
#else
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static int slub_debug;
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#endif
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static char *slub_debug_slabs;

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/*
 * Object debugging
 */
static void print_section(char *text, u8 *addr, unsigned int length)
{
	int i, offset;
	int newline = 1;
	char ascii[17];

	ascii[16] = 0;

	for (i = 0; i < length; i++) {
		if (newline) {
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			printk(KERN_ERR "%8s 0x%p: ", text, addr + i);
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			newline = 0;
		}
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		printk(KERN_CONT " %02x", addr[i]);
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		offset = i % 16;
		ascii[offset] = isgraph(addr[i]) ? addr[i] : '.';
		if (offset == 15) {
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			printk(KERN_CONT " %s\n", ascii);
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			newline = 1;
		}
	}
	if (!newline) {
		i %= 16;
		while (i < 16) {
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			printk(KERN_CONT "   ");
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			ascii[i] = ' ';
			i++;
		}
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		printk(KERN_CONT " %s\n", ascii);
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	}
}

static struct track *get_track(struct kmem_cache *s, void *object,
	enum track_item alloc)
{
	struct track *p;

	if (s->offset)
		p = object + s->offset + sizeof(void *);
	else
		p = object + s->inuse;

	return p + alloc;
}

static void set_track(struct kmem_cache *s, void *object,
				enum track_item alloc, void *addr)
{
	struct track *p;

	if (s->offset)
		p = object + s->offset + sizeof(void *);
	else
		p = object + s->inuse;

	p += alloc;
	if (addr) {
		p->addr = addr;
		p->cpu = smp_processor_id();
		p->pid = current ? current->pid : -1;
		p->when = jiffies;
	} else
		memset(p, 0, sizeof(struct track));
}

static void init_tracking(struct kmem_cache *s, void *object)
{
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	if (!(s->flags & SLAB_STORE_USER))
		return;

	set_track(s, object, TRACK_FREE, NULL);
	set_track(s, object, TRACK_ALLOC, NULL);
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}

static void print_track(const char *s, struct track *t)
{
	if (!t->addr)
		return;

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	printk(KERN_ERR "INFO: %s in ", s);
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	__print_symbol("%s", (unsigned long)t->addr);
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	printk(" age=%lu cpu=%u pid=%d\n", jiffies - t->when, t->cpu, t->pid);
}

static void print_tracking(struct kmem_cache *s, void *object)
{
	if (!(s->flags & SLAB_STORE_USER))
		return;

	print_track("Allocated", get_track(s, object, TRACK_ALLOC));
	print_track("Freed", get_track(s, object, TRACK_FREE));
}

static void print_page_info(struct page *page)
{
	printk(KERN_ERR "INFO: Slab 0x%p used=%u fp=0x%p flags=0x%04lx\n",
		page, page->inuse, page->freelist, page->flags);

}

static void slab_bug(struct kmem_cache *s, char *fmt, ...)
{
	va_list args;
	char buf[100];

	va_start(args, fmt);
	vsnprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), fmt, args);
	va_end(args);
	printk(KERN_ERR "========================================"
			"=====================================\n");
	printk(KERN_ERR "BUG %s: %s\n", s->name, buf);
	printk(KERN_ERR "----------------------------------------"
			"-------------------------------------\n\n");
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}

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static void slab_fix(struct kmem_cache *s, char *fmt, ...)
{
	va_list args;
	char buf[100];

	va_start(args, fmt);
	vsnprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), fmt, args);
	va_end(args);
	printk(KERN_ERR "FIX %s: %s\n", s->name, buf);
}

static void print_trailer(struct kmem_cache *s, struct page *page, u8 *p)
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{
	unsigned int off;	/* Offset of last byte */
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	u8 *addr = page_address(page);
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	print_tracking(s, p);

	print_page_info(page);

	printk(KERN_ERR "INFO: Object 0x%p @offset=%tu fp=0x%p\n\n",
			p, p - addr, get_freepointer(s, p));

	if (p > addr + 16)
		print_section("Bytes b4", p - 16, 16);

	print_section("Object", p, min(s->objsize, 128));
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	if (s->flags & SLAB_RED_ZONE)
		print_section("Redzone", p + s->objsize,
			s->inuse - s->objsize);

	if (s->offset)
		off = s->offset + sizeof(void *);
	else
		off = s->inuse;

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	if (s->flags & SLAB_STORE_USER)
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		off += 2 * sizeof(struct track);

	if (off != s->size)
		/* Beginning of the filler is the free pointer */
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		print_section("Padding", p + off, s->size - off);

	dump_stack();
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}

static void object_err(struct kmem_cache *s, struct page *page,
			u8 *object, char *reason)
{
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	slab_bug(s, "%s", reason);
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	print_trailer(s, page, object);
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}

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static void slab_err(struct kmem_cache *s, struct page *page, char *fmt, ...)
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{
	va_list args;
	char buf[100];

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	va_start(args, fmt);
	vsnprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), fmt, args);
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	va_end(args);
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	slab_bug(s, "%s", buf);
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	print_page_info(page);
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	dump_stack();
}

static void init_object(struct kmem_cache *s, void *object, int active)
{
	u8 *p = object;

	if (s->flags & __OBJECT_POISON) {
		memset(p, POISON_FREE, s->objsize - 1);
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		p[s->objsize - 1] = POISON_END;
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	}

	if (s->flags & SLAB_RED_ZONE)
		memset(p + s->objsize,
			active ? SLUB_RED_ACTIVE : SLUB_RED_INACTIVE,
			s->inuse - s->objsize);
}

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static u8 *check_bytes(u8 *start, unsigned int value, unsigned int bytes)
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{
	while (bytes) {
		if (*start != (u8)value)
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			return start;
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		start++;
		bytes--;
	}
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	return NULL;
}

static void restore_bytes(struct kmem_cache *s, char *message, u8 data,
						void *from, void *to)
{
	slab_fix(s, "Restoring 0x%p-0x%p=0x%x\n", from, to - 1, data);
	memset(from, data, to - from);
}

static int check_bytes_and_report(struct kmem_cache *s, struct page *page,
			u8 *object, char *what,
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			u8 *start, unsigned int value, unsigned int bytes)
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{
	u8 *fault;
	u8 *end;

	fault = check_bytes(start, value, bytes);
	if (!fault)
		return 1;

	end = start + bytes;
	while (end > fault && end[-1] == value)
		end--;

	slab_bug(s, "%s overwritten", what);
	printk(KERN_ERR "INFO: 0x%p-0x%p. First byte 0x%x instead of 0x%x\n",
					fault, end - 1, fault[0], value);
	print_trailer(s, page, object);

	restore_bytes(s, what, value, fault, end);
	return 0;
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}

/*
 * Object layout:
 *
 * object address
 * 	Bytes of the object to be managed.
 * 	If the freepointer may overlay the object then the free
 * 	pointer is the first word of the object.
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 *
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 * 	Poisoning uses 0x6b (POISON_FREE) and the last byte is
 * 	0xa5 (POISON_END)
 *
 * object + s->objsize
 * 	Padding to reach word boundary. This is also used for Redzoning.
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 * 	Padding is extended by another word if Redzoning is enabled and
 * 	objsize == inuse.
 *
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 * 	We fill with 0xbb (RED_INACTIVE) for inactive objects and with
 * 	0xcc (RED_ACTIVE) for objects in use.
 *
 * object + s->inuse
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 * 	Meta data starts here.
 *
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 * 	A. Free pointer (if we cannot overwrite object on free)
 * 	B. Tracking data for SLAB_STORE_USER
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 * 	C. Padding to reach required alignment boundary or at mininum
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 * 		one word if debugging is on to be able to detect writes
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 * 		before the word boundary.
 *
 *	Padding is done using 0x5a (POISON_INUSE)
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 *
 * object + s->size
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 * 	Nothing is used beyond s->size.
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 *
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 * If slabcaches are merged then the objsize and inuse boundaries are mostly
 * ignored. And therefore no slab options that rely on these boundaries
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 * may be used with merged slabcaches.
 */

static int check_pad_bytes(struct kmem_cache *s, struct page *page, u8 *p)
{
	unsigned long off = s->inuse;	/* The end of info */

	if (s->offset)
		/* Freepointer is placed after the object. */
		off += sizeof(void *);

	if (s->flags & SLAB_STORE_USER)
		/* We also have user information there */
		off += 2 * sizeof(struct track);

	if (s->size == off)
		return 1;

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	return check_bytes_and_report(s, page, p, "Object padding",
				p + off, POISON_INUSE, s->size - off);
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}

static int slab_pad_check(struct kmem_cache *s, struct page *page)
{
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	u8 *start;
	u8 *fault;
	u8 *end;
	int length;
	int remainder;
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	if (!(s->flags & SLAB_POISON))
		return 1;

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	start = page_address(page);
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	end = start + (PAGE_SIZE << s->order);
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	length = s->objects * s->size;
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	remainder = end - (start + length);
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	if (!remainder)
		return 1;

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	fault = check_bytes(start + length, POISON_INUSE, remainder);
	if (!fault)
		return 1;
	while (end > fault && end[-1] == POISON_INUSE)
		end--;

	slab_err(s, page, "Padding overwritten. 0x%p-0x%p", fault, end - 1);
	print_section("Padding", start, length);

	restore_bytes(s, "slab padding", POISON_INUSE, start, end);
	return 0;
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}

static int check_object(struct kmem_cache *s, struct page *page,
					void *object, int active)
{
	u8 *p = object;
	u8 *endobject = object + s->objsize;

	if (s->flags & SLAB_RED_ZONE) {
		unsigned int red =
			active ? SLUB_RED_ACTIVE : SLUB_RED_INACTIVE;

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		if (!check_bytes_and_report(s, page, object, "Redzone",
			endobject, red, s->inuse - s->objsize))
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			return 0;
	} else {
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		if ((s->flags & SLAB_POISON) && s->objsize < s->inuse) {
			check_bytes_and_report(s, page, p, "Alignment padding",
				endobject, POISON_INUSE, s->inuse - s->objsize);
		}
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	}

	if (s->flags & SLAB_POISON) {
		if (!active && (s->flags & __OBJECT_POISON) &&
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			(!check_bytes_and_report(s, page, p, "Poison", p,
					POISON_FREE, s->objsize - 1) ||
			 !check_bytes_and_report(s, page, p, "Poison",
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				p + s->objsize - 1, POISON_END, 1)))
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			return 0;
		/*
		 * check_pad_bytes cleans up on its own.
		 */
		check_pad_bytes(s, page, p);
	}

	if (!s->offset && active)
		/*
		 * Object and freepointer overlap. Cannot check
		 * freepointer while object is allocated.
		 */
		return 1;

	/* Check free pointer validity */
	if (!check_valid_pointer(s, page, get_freepointer(s, p))) {
		object_err(s, page, p, "Freepointer corrupt");
		/*
		 * No choice but to zap it and thus loose the remainder
		 * of the free objects in this slab. May cause
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		 * another error because the object count is now wrong.
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		 */
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		set_freepointer(s, p, NULL);
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		return 0;
	}
	return 1;
}

static int check_slab(struct kmem_cache *s, struct page *page)
{
	VM_BUG_ON(!irqs_disabled());

	if (!PageSlab(page)) {
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		slab_err(s, page, "Not a valid slab page");
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		return 0;
	}
	if (page->inuse > s->objects) {
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		slab_err(s, page, "inuse %u > max %u",
			s->name, page->inuse, s->objects);
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		return 0;
	}
	/* Slab_pad_check fixes things up after itself */
	slab_pad_check(s, page);
	return 1;
}

/*
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 * Determine if a certain object on a page is on the freelist. Must hold the
 * slab lock to guarantee that the chains are in a consistent state.
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 */
static int on_freelist(struct kmem_cache *s, struct page *page, void *search)
{
	int nr = 0;
	void *fp = page->freelist;
	void *object = NULL;

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	while (fp && nr <= s->objects) {
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		if (fp == search)
			return 1;
		if (!check_valid_pointer(s, page, fp)) {
			if (object) {
				object_err(s, page, object,
					"Freechain corrupt");
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				set_freepointer(s, object, NULL);
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				break;
			} else {
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				slab_err(s, page, "Freepointer corrupt");
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				page->freelist = NULL;
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				page->inuse = s->objects;
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				slab_fix(s, "Freelist cleared");
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				return 0;
			}
			break;
		}
		object = fp;
		fp = get_freepointer(s, object);
		nr++;
	}

	if (page->inuse != s->objects - nr) {
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		slab_err(s, page, "Wrong object count. Counter is %d but "
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			"counted were %d", page->inuse, s->objects - nr);
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		page->inuse = s->objects - nr;
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		slab_fix(s, "Object count adjusted.");
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	}
	return search == NULL;
}

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static void trace(struct kmem_cache *s, struct page *page, void *object, int alloc)
{
	if (s->flags & SLAB_TRACE) {
		printk(KERN_INFO "TRACE %s %s 0x%p inuse=%d fp=0x%p\n",
			s->name,
			alloc ? "alloc" : "free",
			object, page->inuse,
			page->freelist);

		if (!alloc)
			print_section("Object", (void *)object, s->objsize);

		dump_stack();
	}
}

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/*
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 * Tracking of fully allocated slabs for debugging purposes.
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 */
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static void add_full(struct kmem_cache_node *n, struct page *page)
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{
	spin_lock(&n->list_lock);
	list_add(&page->lru, &n->full);
	spin_unlock(&n->list_lock);
}

static void remove_full(struct kmem_cache *s, struct page *page)
{
	struct kmem_cache_node *n;

	if (!(s->flags & SLAB_STORE_USER))
		return;

	n = get_node(s, page_to_nid(page));

	spin_lock(&n->list_lock);
	list_del(&page->lru);
	spin_unlock(&n->list_lock);
}

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/* Tracking of the number of slabs for debugging purposes */
static inline unsigned long slabs_node(struct kmem_cache *s, int node)
{
	struct kmem_cache_node *n = get_node(s, node);

	return atomic_long_read(&n->nr_slabs);
}

static inline void inc_slabs_node(struct kmem_cache *s, int node)
{
	struct kmem_cache_node *n = get_node(s, node);

	/*
	 * May be called early in order to allocate a slab for the
	 * kmem_cache_node structure. Solve the chicken-egg
	 * dilemma by deferring the increment of the count during
	 * bootstrap (see early_kmem_cache_node_alloc).
	 */
	if (!NUMA_BUILD || n)
		atomic_long_inc(&n->nr_slabs);
}
static inline void dec_slabs_node(struct kmem_cache *s, int node)
{
	struct kmem_cache_node *n = get_node(s, node);

	atomic_long_dec(&n->nr_slabs);
}

/* Object debug checks for alloc/free paths */
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static void setup_object_debug(struct kmem_cache *s, struct page *page,
								void *object)
{
	if (!(s->flags & (SLAB_STORE_USER|SLAB_RED_ZONE|__OBJECT_POISON)))
		return;

	init_object(s, object, 0);
	init_tracking(s, object);
}

static int alloc_debug_processing(struct kmem_cache *s, struct page *page,
						void *object, void *addr)
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{
	if (!check_slab(s, page))
		goto bad;

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	if (!on_freelist(s, page, object)) {
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		object_err(s, page, object, "Object already allocated");
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		goto bad;
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	}

	if (!check_valid_pointer(s, page, object)) {
		object_err(s, page, object, "Freelist Pointer check fails");
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		goto bad;
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	}

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	if (!check_object(s, page, object, 0))
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		goto bad;

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	/* Success perform special debug activities for allocs */
	if (s->flags & SLAB_STORE_USER)
		set_track(s, object, TRACK_ALLOC, addr);
	trace(s, page, object, 1);
	init_object(s, object, 1);
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	return 1;
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bad:
	if (PageSlab(page)) {
		/*
		 * If this is a slab page then lets do the best we can
		 * to avoid issues in the future. Marking all objects
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		 * as used avoids touching the remaining objects.
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		 */
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		slab_fix(s, "Marking all objects used");
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		page->inuse = s->objects;
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		page->freelist = NULL;
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	}
	return 0;
}

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static int free_debug_processing(struct kmem_cache *s, struct page *page,
						void *object, void *addr)
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{
	if (!check_slab(s, page))
		goto fail;

	if (!check_valid_pointer(s, page, object)) {
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		slab_err(s, page, "Invalid object pointer 0x%p", object);
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		goto fail;
	}

	if (on_freelist(s, page, object)) {
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		object_err(s, page, object, "Object already free");
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		goto fail;
	}

	if (!check_object(s, page, object, 1))
		return 0;

	if (unlikely(s != page->slab)) {
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		if (!PageSlab(page)) {
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			slab_err(s, page, "Attempt to free object(0x%p) "
				"outside of slab", object);
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		} else if (!page->slab) {
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			printk(KERN_ERR
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				"SLUB <none>: no slab for object 0x%p.\n",
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						object);
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			dump_stack();
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		} else
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			object_err(s, page, object,
					"page slab pointer corrupt.");
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		goto fail;
	}
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	/* Special debug activities for freeing objects */
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	if (!SlabFrozen(page) && !page->freelist)
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		remove_full(s, page);
	if (s->flags & SLAB_STORE_USER)
		set_track(s, object, TRACK_FREE, addr);
	trace(s, page, object, 0);
	init_object(s, object, 0);
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	return 1;
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fail:
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	slab_fix(s, "Object at 0x%p not freed", object);
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	return 0;
}

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static int __init setup_slub_debug(char *str)
{
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	slub_debug = DEBUG_DEFAULT_FLAGS;
	if (*str++ != '=' || !*str)
		/*
		 * No options specified. Switch on full debugging.
		 */
		goto out;

	if (*str == ',')
		/*
		 * No options but restriction on slabs. This means full
		 * debugging for slabs matching a pattern.
		 */
		goto check_slabs;

	slub_debug = 0;
	if (*str == '-')
		/*
		 * Switch off all debugging measures.
		 */
		goto out;

	/*
	 * Determine which debug features should be switched on
	 */
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	for (; *str && *str != ','; str++) {
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		switch (tolower(*str)) {
		case 'f':
			slub_debug |= SLAB_DEBUG_FREE;
			break;
		case 'z':
			slub_debug |= SLAB_RED_ZONE;
			break;
		case 'p':
			slub_debug |= SLAB_POISON;
			break;
		case 'u':
			slub_debug |= SLAB_STORE_USER;
			break;
		case 't':
			slub_debug |= SLAB_TRACE;
			break;
		default:
			printk(KERN_ERR "slub_debug option '%c' "
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				"unknown. skipped\n", *str);
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		}
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	}

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check_slabs:
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	if (*str == ',')
		slub_debug_slabs = str + 1;
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out:
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	return 1;
}

__setup("slub_debug", setup_slub_debug);

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static unsigned long kmem_cache_flags(unsigned long objsize,
	unsigned long flags, const char *name,
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	void (*ctor)(struct kmem_cache *, void *))
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{
	/*
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	 * Enable debugging if selected on the kernel commandline.
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	 */
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	if (slub_debug && (!slub_debug_slabs ||
	    strncmp(slub_debug_slabs, name, strlen(slub_debug_slabs)) == 0))
			flags |= slub_debug;
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	return flags;
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}
#else
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static inline void setup_object_debug(struct kmem_cache *s,
			struct page *page, void *object) {}
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static inline int alloc_debug_processing(struct kmem_cache *s,
	struct page *page, void *object, void *addr) { return 0; }
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static inline int free_debug_processing(struct kmem_cache *s,
	struct page *page, void *object, void *addr) { return 0; }
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static inline int slab_pad_check(struct kmem_cache *s, struct page *page)
			{ return 1; }
static inline int check_object(struct kmem_cache *s, struct page *page,
			void *object, int active) { return 1; }
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static inline void add_full(struct kmem_cache_node *n, struct page *page) {}
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static inline unsigned long kmem_cache_flags(unsigned long objsize,
	unsigned long flags, const char *name,
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	void (*ctor)(struct kmem_cache *, void *))
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{
	return flags;
}
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#define slub_debug 0
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static inline unsigned long slabs_node(struct kmem_cache *s, int node)
							{ return 0; }
static inline void inc_slabs_node(struct kmem_cache *s, int node) {}
static inline void dec_slabs_node(struct kmem_cache *s, int node) {}
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#endif
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/*
 * Slab allocation and freeing
 */
static struct page *allocate_slab(struct kmem_cache *s, gfp_t flags, int node)
{
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	struct page *page;
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	int pages = 1 << s->order;

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	flags |= s->allocflags;
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	if (node == -1)
		page = alloc_pages(flags, s->order);
	else
		page = alloc_pages_node(node, flags, s->order);

	if (!page)
		return NULL;

	mod_zone_page_state(page_zone(page),
		(s->flags & SLAB_RECLAIM_ACCOUNT) ?
		NR_SLAB_RECLAIMABLE : NR_SLAB_UNRECLAIMABLE,
		pages);

	return page;
}

static void setup_object(struct kmem_cache *s, struct page *page,
				void *object)
{
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	setup_object_debug(s, page, object);
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	if (unlikely(s->ctor))
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		s->ctor(s, object);
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}

static struct page *new_slab(struct kmem_cache *s, gfp_t flags, int node)
{
	struct page *page;
	void *start;
	void *last;
	void *p;

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	BUG_ON(flags & GFP_SLAB_BUG_MASK);
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	page = allocate_slab(s,
		flags & (GFP_RECLAIM_MASK | GFP_CONSTRAINT_MASK), node);
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	if (!page)
		goto out;

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	inc_slabs_node(s, page_to_nid(page));
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	page->slab = s;
	page->flags |= 1 << PG_slab;
	if (s->flags & (SLAB_DEBUG_FREE | SLAB_RED_ZONE | SLAB_POISON |
			SLAB_STORE_USER | SLAB_TRACE))
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		SetSlabDebug(page);
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	start = page_address(page);

	if (unlikely(s->flags & SLAB_POISON))
		memset(start, POISON_INUSE, PAGE_SIZE << s->order);

	last = start;
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	for_each_object(p, s, start) {
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		setup_object(s, page, last);
		set_freepointer(s, last, p);
		last = p;
	}
	setup_object(s, page, last);
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	set_freepointer(s, last, NULL);
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	page->freelist = start;
	page->inuse = 0;
out:
	return page;
}

static void __free_slab(struct kmem_cache *s, struct page *page)
{
	int pages = 1 << s->order;

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	if (unlikely(SlabDebug(page))) {
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		void *p;

		slab_pad_check(s, page);
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		for_each_object(p, s, page_address(page))
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			check_object(s, page, p, 0);
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		ClearSlabDebug(page);
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	}

	mod_zone_page_state(page_zone(page),
		(s->flags & SLAB_RECLAIM_ACCOUNT) ?
		NR_SLAB_RECLAIMABLE : NR_SLAB_UNRECLAIMABLE,
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		-pages);
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	__ClearPageSlab(page);
	reset_page_mapcount(page);
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	__free_pages(page, s->order);
}

static void rcu_free_slab(struct rcu_head *h)
{
	struct page *page;

	page = container_of((struct list_head *)h, struct page, lru);
	__free_slab(page->slab, page);
}

static void free_slab(struct kmem_cache *s, struct page *page)
{
	if (unlikely(s->flags & SLAB_DESTROY_BY_RCU)) {
		/*
		 * RCU free overloads the RCU head over the LRU
		 */
		struct rcu_head *head = (void *)&page->lru;

		call_rcu(head, rcu_free_slab);
	} else
		__free_slab(s, page);
}

static void discard_slab(struct kmem_cache *s, struct page *page)
{
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	dec_slabs_node(s, page_to_nid(page));
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	free_slab(s, page);
}

/*
 * Per slab locking using the pagelock
 */
static __always_inline void slab_lock(struct page *page)
{
	bit_spin_lock(PG_locked, &page->flags);
}

static __always_inline void slab_unlock(struct page *page)
{
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	__bit_spin_unlock(PG_locked, &page->flags);
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}

static __always_inline int slab_trylock(struct page *page)
{
	int rc = 1;

	rc = bit_spin_trylock(PG_locked, &page->flags);
	return rc;
}

/*
 * Management of partially allocated slabs
 */
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static void add_partial(struct kmem_cache_node *n,
				struct page *page, int tail)
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{
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	spin_lock(&n->list_lock);
	n->nr_partial++;
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	if (tail)
		list_add_tail(&page->lru, &n->partial);
	else
		list_add(&page->lru, &n->partial);
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	spin_unlock(&n->list_lock);
}

static void remove_partial(struct kmem_cache *s,
						struct page *page)
{
	struct kmem_cache_node *n = get_node(s, page_to_nid(page));

	spin_lock(&n->list_lock);
	list_del(&page->lru);
	n->nr_partial--;
	spin_unlock(&n->list_lock);
}

/*
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 * Lock slab and remove from the partial list.
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 *
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 * Must hold list_lock.
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 */
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static inline int lock_and_freeze_slab(struct kmem_cache_node *n, struct page *page)
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{
	if (slab_trylock(page)) {
		list_del(&page->lru);
		n->nr_partial--;
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		SetSlabFrozen(page);
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		return 1;
	}
	return 0;
}

/*
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 * Try to allocate a partial slab from a specific node.
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 */
static struct page *get_partial_node(struct kmem_cache_node *n)
{
	struct page *page;

	/*
	 * Racy check. If we mistakenly see no partial slabs then we
	 * just allocate an empty slab. If we mistakenly try to get a
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	 * partial slab and there is none available then get_partials()
	 * will return NULL.
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	 */
	if (!n || !n->nr_partial)
		return NULL;

	spin_lock(&n->list_lock);
	list_for_each_entry(page, &n->partial, lru)
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		if (lock_and_freeze_slab(n, page))
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			goto out;
	page = NULL;
out:
	spin_unlock(&n->list_lock);
	return page;
}

/*
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 * Get a page from somewhere. Search in increasing NUMA distances.
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 */
static struct page *get_any_partial(struct kmem_cache *s, gfp_t flags)
{
#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
	struct zonelist *zonelist;
	struct zone **z;
	struct page *page;

	/*
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	 * The defrag ratio allows a configuration of the tradeoffs between
	 * inter node defragmentation and node local allocations. A lower
	 * defrag_ratio increases the tendency to do local allocations
	 * instead of attempting to obtain partial slabs from other nodes.
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	 *
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	 * If the defrag_ratio is set to 0 then kmalloc() always
	 * returns node local objects. If the ratio is higher then kmalloc()
	 * may return off node objects because partial slabs are obtained
	 * from other nodes and filled up.
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	 *
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	 * If /sys/kernel/slab/xx/defrag_ratio is set to 100 (which makes
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	 * defrag_ratio = 1000) then every (well almost) allocation will
	 * first attempt to defrag slab caches on other nodes. This means
	 * scanning over all nodes to look for partial slabs which may be
	 * expensive if we do it every time we are trying to find a slab
	 * with available objects.
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	 */
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	if (!s->remote_node_defrag_ratio ||
			get_cycles() % 1024 > s->remote_node_defrag_ratio)
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		return NULL;

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	zonelist = &NODE_DATA(
		slab_node(current->mempolicy))->node_zonelists[gfp_zone(flags)];
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	for (z = zonelist->zones; *z; z++) {
		struct kmem_cache_node *n;

		n = get_node(s, zone_to_nid(*z));

		if (n && cpuset_zone_allowed_hardwall(*z, flags) &&
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				n->nr_partial > MIN_PARTIAL) {
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			page = get_partial_node(n);
			if (page)
				return page;
		}
	}
#endif
	return NULL;
}

/*
 * Get a partial page, lock it and return it.
 */
static struct page *get_partial(struct kmem_cache *s, gfp_t flags, int node)
{
	struct page *page;
	int searchnode = (node == -1) ? numa_node_id() : node;

	page = get_partial_node(get_node(s, searchnode));
	if (page || (flags & __GFP_THISNODE))
		return page;

	return get_any_partial(s, flags);
}

/*
 * Move a page back to the lists.
 *
 * Must be called with the slab lock held.
 *
 * On exit the slab lock will have been dropped.
 */
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static void unfreeze_slab(struct kmem_cache *s, struct page *page, int tail)
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{
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	struct kmem_cache_node *n = get_node(s, page_to_nid(page));
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	struct kmem_cache_cpu *c = get_cpu_slab(s, smp_processor_id());
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	ClearSlabFrozen(page);
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	if (page->inuse) {
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		if (page->freelist) {
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			add_partial(n, page, tail);
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			stat(c, tail ? DEACTIVATE_TO_TAIL : DEACTIVATE_TO_HEAD);
		} else {
			stat(c, DEACTIVATE_FULL);
			if (SlabDebug(page) && (s->flags & SLAB_STORE_USER))
				add_full(n, page);
		}
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		slab_unlock(page);
	} else {
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		stat(c, DEACTIVATE_EMPTY);
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		if (n->nr_partial < MIN_PARTIAL) {
			/*
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			 * Adding an empty slab to the partial slabs in order
			 * to avoid page allocator overhead. This slab needs
			 * to come after the other slabs with objects in
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			 * so that the others get filled first. That way the
			 * size of the partial list stays small.
			 *
			 * kmem_cache_shrink can reclaim any empty slabs from the
			 * partial list.
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			 */
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			add_partial(n, page, 1);
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			slab_unlock(page);
		} else {
			slab_unlock(page);
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			stat(get_cpu_slab(s, raw_smp_processor_id()), FREE_SLAB);
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			discard_slab(s, page);
		}
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	}
}

/*
 * Remove the cpu slab
 */
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static void deactivate_slab(struct kmem_cache *s, struct kmem_cache_cpu *c)
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{
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	struct page *page = c->page;
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	int tail = 1;
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	if (page->freelist)
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		stat(c, DEACTIVATE_REMOTE_FREES);
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	/*
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	 * Merge cpu freelist into slab freelist. Typically we get here
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	 * because both freelists are empty. So this is unlikely
	 * to occur.
	 */
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	while (unlikely(c->freelist)) {
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		void **object;

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		tail = 0;	/* Hot objects. Put the slab first */

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		/* Retrieve object from cpu_freelist */
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		object = c->freelist;
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		c->freelist = c->freelist[c->offset];
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		/* And put onto the regular freelist */
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		object[c->offset] = page->freelist;
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		page->freelist = object;
		page->inuse--;
	}
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	c->page = NULL;