1. 07 Feb, 2018 4 commits
  2. 16 Nov, 2017 1 commit
  3. 02 Nov, 2017 1 commit
    • Greg Kroah-Hartman's avatar
      License cleanup: add SPDX GPL-2.0 license identifier to files with no license · b2441318
      Greg Kroah-Hartman authored
      
      
      Many source files in the tree are missing licensing information, which
      makes it harder for compliance tools to determine the correct license.
      
      By default all files without license information are under the default
      license of the kernel, which is GPL version 2.
      
      Update the files which contain no license information with the 'GPL-2.0'
      SPDX license identifier.  The SPDX identifier is a legally binding
      shorthand, which can be used instead of the full boiler plate text.
      
      This patch is based on work done by Thomas Gleixner and Kate Stewart and
      Philippe Ombredanne.
      
      How this work was done:
      
      Patches were generated and checked against linux-4.14-rc6 for a subset of
      the use cases:
       - file had no licensing information it it.
       - file was a */uapi/* one with no licensing information in it,
       - file was a */uapi/* one with existing licensing information,
      
      Further patches will be generated in subsequent months to fix up cases
      where non-standard license headers were used, and references to license
      had to be inferred by heuristics based on keywords.
      
      The analysis to determine which SPDX License Identifier to be applied to
      a file was done in a spreadsheet of side by side results from of the
      output of two independent scanners (ScanCode & Windriver) producing SPDX
      tag:value files created by Philippe Ombredanne.  Philippe prepared the
      base worksheet, and did an initial spot review of a few 1000 files.
      
      The 4.13 kernel was the starting point of the analysis with 60,537 files
      assessed.  Kate Stewart did a file by file comparison of the scanner
      results in the spreadsheet to determine which SPDX license identifier(s)
      to be applied to the file. She confirmed any determination that was not
      immediately clear with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      
      Criteria used to select files for SPDX license identifier tagging was:
       - Files considered eligible had to be source code files.
       - Make and config files were included as candidates if they contained >5
         lines of source
       - File already had some variant of a license header in it (even if <5
         lines).
      
      All documentation files were explicitly excluded.
      
      The following heuristics were used to determine which SPDX license
      identifiers to apply.
      
       - when both scanners couldn't find any license traces, file was
         considered to have no license information in it, and the top level
         COPYING file license applied.
      
         For non */uapi/* files that summary was:
      
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         ---------------------------------------------------|-------
         GPL-2.0                                              11139
      
         and resulted in the first patch in this series.
      
         If that file was a */uapi/* path one, it was "GPL-2.0 WITH
         Linux-syscall-note" otherwise it was "GPL-2.0".  Results of that was:
      
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         ---------------------------------------------------|-------
         GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note                        930
      
         and resulted in the second patch in this series.
      
       - if a file had some form of licensing information in it, and was one
         of the */uapi/* ones, it was denoted with the Linux-syscall-note if
         any GPL family license was found in the file or had no licensing in
         it (per prior point).  Results summary:
      
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         ---------------------------------------------------|------
         GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note                       270
         GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                      169
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-2-Clause)    21
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause)    17
         LGPL-2.1+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                      15
         GPL-1.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                       14
         ((GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause)    5
         LGPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                       4
         LGPL-2.1 WITH Linux-syscall-note                        3
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR MIT)              3
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) AND MIT)             1
      
         and that resulted in the third patch in this series.
      
       - when the two scanners agreed on the detected license(s), that became
         the concluded license(s).
      
       - when there was disagreement between the two scanners (one detected a
         license but the other didn't, or they both detected different
         licenses) a manual inspection of the file occurred.
      
       - In most cases a manual inspection of the information in the file
         resulted in a clear resolution of the license that should apply (and
         which scanner probably needed to revisit its heuristics).
      
       - When it was not immediately clear, the license identifier was
         confirmed with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      
       - If there was any question as to the appropriate license identifier,
         the file was flagged for further research and to be revisited later
         in time.
      
      In total, over 70 hours of logged manual review was done on the
      spreadsheet to determine the SPDX license identifiers to apply to the
      source files by Kate, Philippe, Thomas and, in some cases, confirmation
      by lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      
      Kate also obtained a third independent scan of the 4.13 code base from
      FOSSology, and compared selected files where the other two scanners
      disagreed against that SPDX file, to see if there was new insights.  The
      Windriver scanner is based on an older version of FOSSology in part, so
      they are related.
      
      Thomas did random spot checks in about 500 files from the spreadsheets
      for the uapi headers and agreed with SPDX license identifier in the
      files he inspected. For the non-uapi files Thomas did random spot checks
      in about 15000 files.
      
      In initial set of patches against 4.14-rc6, 3 files were found to have
      copy/paste license identifier errors, and have been fixed to reflect the
      correct identifier.
      
      Additionally Philippe spent 10 hours this week doing a detailed manual
      inspection and review of the 12,461 patched files from the initial patch
      version early this week with:
       - a full scancode scan run, collecting the matched texts, detected
         license ids and scores
       - reviewing anything where there was a license detected (about 500+
         files) to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct
       - reviewing anything where there was no detection but the patch license
         was not GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note to ensure that the applied
         SPDX license was correct
      
      This produced a worksheet with 20 files needing minor correction.  This
      worksheet was then exported into 3 different .csv files for the
      different types of files to be modified.
      
      These .csv files were then reviewed by Greg.  Thomas wrote a script to
      parse the csv files and add the proper SPDX tag to the file, in the
      format that the file expected.  This script was further refined by Greg
      based on the output to detect more types of files automatically and to
      distinguish between header and source .c files (which need different
      comment types.)  Finally Greg ran the script using the .csv files to
      generate the patches.
      Reviewed-by: default avatarKate Stewart <kstewart@linuxfoundation.org>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarPhilippe Ombredanne <pombredanne@nexb.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarThomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarGreg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
      b2441318
  4. 01 Apr, 2017 1 commit
  5. 16 Mar, 2017 1 commit
  6. 09 Mar, 2017 1 commit
  7. 03 Mar, 2017 1 commit
  8. 02 Mar, 2017 1 commit
    • Ingo Molnar's avatar
      kasan, sched/headers: Uninline kasan_enable/disable_current() · af8601ad
      Ingo Molnar authored
      
      
      <linux/kasan.h> is a low level header that is included early
      in affected kernel headers. But it includes <linux/sched.h>
      which complicates the cleanup of sched.h dependencies.
      
      But kasan.h has almost no need for sched.h: its only use of
      scheduler functionality is in two inline functions which are
      not used very frequently - so uninline kasan_enable_current()
      and kasan_disable_current().
      
      Also add a <linux/sched.h> dependency to a .c file that depended
      on kasan.h including it.
      
      This paves the way to remove the <linux/sched.h> include from kasan.h.
      Acked-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      Cc: Mike Galbraith <efault@gmx.de>
      Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
      Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Cc: linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org
      Signed-off-by: default avatarIngo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
      af8601ad
  9. 25 Feb, 2017 1 commit
    • Greg Thelen's avatar
      kasan: drain quarantine of memcg slab objects · f9fa1d91
      Greg Thelen authored
      Per memcg slab accounting and kasan have a problem with kmem_cache
      destruction.
       - kmem_cache_create() allocates a kmem_cache, which is used for
         allocations from processes running in root (top) memcg.
       - Processes running in non root memcg and allocating with either
         __GFP_ACCOUNT or from a SLAB_ACCOUNT cache use a per memcg
         kmem_cache.
       - Kasan catches use-after-free by having kfree() and kmem_cache_free()
         defer freeing of objects. Objects are placed in a quarantine.
       - kmem_cache_destroy() destroys root and non root kmem_caches. It takes
         care to drain the quarantine of objects from the root memcg's
         kmem_cache, but ignores objects associated with non root memcg. This
         causes leaks because quarantined per memcg objects refer to per memcg
         kmem cache being destroyed.
      
      To see the problem:
      
       1) create a slab cache with kmem_cache_create(,,,SLAB_ACCOUNT,)
       2) from non root memcg, allocate and free a few objects from cache
       3) dispose of the cache with kmem_cache_destroy() kmem_cache_destroy()
          will trigger a "Slab cache still has objects" warning indicating
          that the per memcg kmem_cache structure was leaked.
      
      Fix the leak by draining kasan quarantined objects allocated from non
      root memcg.
      
      Racing memcg deletion is tricky, but handled.  kmem_cache_destroy() =>
      shutdown_memcg_caches() => __shutdown_memcg_cache() => shutdown_cache()
      flushes per memcg quarantined objects, even if that memcg has been
      rmdir'd and gone through memcg_deactivate_kmem_caches().
      
      This leak only affects destroyed SLAB_ACCOUNT kmem caches when kasan is
      enabled.  So I don't think it's worth patching stable kernels.
      
      Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1482257462-36948-1-git-send-email-gthelen@google.com
      
      Signed-off-by: default avatarGreg Thelen <gthelen@google.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarVladimir Davydov <vdavydov.dev@gmail.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarAndrey Ryabinin <aryabinin@virtuozzo.com>
      Cc: Alexander Potapenko <glider@google.com>
      Cc: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
      Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>
      Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org>
      Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
      Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      f9fa1d91
  10. 16 Oct, 2016 1 commit
    • Dmitry Vyukov's avatar
      kprobes: Unpoison stack in jprobe_return() for KASAN · 9f7d416c
      Dmitry Vyukov authored
      
      
      I observed false KSAN positives in the sctp code, when
      sctp uses jprobe_return() in jsctp_sf_eat_sack().
      
      The stray 0xf4 in shadow memory are stack redzones:
      
      [     ] ==================================================================
      [     ] BUG: KASAN: stack-out-of-bounds in memcmp+0xe9/0x150 at addr ffff88005e48f480
      [     ] Read of size 1 by task syz-executor/18535
      [     ] page:ffffea00017923c0 count:0 mapcount:0 mapping:          (null) index:0x0
      [     ] flags: 0x1fffc0000000000()
      [     ] page dumped because: kasan: bad access detected
      [     ] CPU: 1 PID: 18535 Comm: syz-executor Not tainted 4.8.0+ #28
      [     ] Hardware name: Google Google Compute Engine/Google Compute Engine, BIOS Google 01/01/2011
      [     ]  ffff88005e48f2d0 ffffffff82d2b849 ffffffff0bc91e90 fffffbfff10971e8
      [     ]  ffffed000bc91e90 ffffed000bc91e90 0000000000000001 0000000000000000
      [     ]  ffff88005e48f480 ffff88005e48f350 ffffffff817d3169 ffff88005e48f370
      [     ] Call Trace:
      [     ]  [<ffffffff82d2b849>] dump_stack+0x12e/0x185
      [     ]  [<ffffffff817d3169>] kasan_report+0x489/0x4b0
      [     ]  [<ffffffff817d31a9>] __asan_report_load1_noabort+0x19/0x20
      [     ]  [<ffffffff82d49529>] memcmp+0xe9/0x150
      [     ]  [<ffffffff82df7486>] depot_save_stack+0x176/0x5c0
      [     ]  [<ffffffff817d2031>] save_stack+0xb1/0xd0
      [     ]  [<ffffffff817d27f2>] kasan_slab_free+0x72/0xc0
      [     ]  [<ffffffff817d05b8>] kfree+0xc8/0x2a0
      [     ]  [<ffffffff85b03f19>] skb_free_head+0x79/0xb0
      [     ]  [<ffffffff85b0900a>] skb_release_data+0x37a/0x420
      [     ]  [<ffffffff85b090ff>] skb_release_all+0x4f/0x60
      [     ]  [<ffffffff85b11348>] consume_skb+0x138/0x370
      [     ]  [<ffffffff8676ad7b>] sctp_chunk_put+0xcb/0x180
      [     ]  [<ffffffff8676ae88>] sctp_chunk_free+0x58/0x70
      [     ]  [<ffffffff8677fa5f>] sctp_inq_pop+0x68f/0xef0
      [     ]  [<ffffffff8675ee36>] sctp_assoc_bh_rcv+0xd6/0x4b0
      [     ]  [<ffffffff8677f2c1>] sctp_inq_push+0x131/0x190
      [     ]  [<ffffffff867bad69>] sctp_backlog_rcv+0xe9/0xa20
      [ ... ]
      [     ] Memory state around the buggy address:
      [     ]  ffff88005e48f380: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
      [     ]  ffff88005e48f400: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
      [     ] >ffff88005e48f480: f4 f4 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
      [     ]                    ^
      [     ]  ffff88005e48f500: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
      [     ]  ffff88005e48f580: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
      [     ] ==================================================================
      
      KASAN stack instrumentation poisons stack redzones on function entry
      and unpoisons them on function exit. If a function exits abnormally
      (e.g. with a longjmp like jprobe_return()), stack redzones are left
      poisoned. Later this leads to random KASAN false reports.
      
      Unpoison stack redzones in the frames we are going to jump over
      before doing actual longjmp in jprobe_return().
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarMasami Hiramatsu <mhiramat@kernel.org>
      Reviewed-by: Mark Rutland's avatarMark Rutland <mark.rutland@arm.com>
      Cc: Mark Rutland <mark.rutland@arm.com>
      Cc: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
      Cc: Andrey Ryabinin <ryabinin.a.a@gmail.com>
      Cc: Lorenzo Pieralisi <lorenzo.pieralisi@arm.com>
      Cc: Alexander Potapenko <glider@google.com>
      Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
      Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Cc: Ananth N Mavinakayanahalli <ananth@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
      Cc: Anil S Keshavamurthy <anil.s.keshavamurthy@intel.com>
      Cc: "David S. Miller" <davem@davemloft.net>
      Cc: Masami Hiramatsu <mhiramat@kernel.org>
      Cc: kasan-dev@googlegroups.com
      Cc: surovegin@google.com
      Cc: rostedt@goodmis.org
      Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1476454043-101898-1-git-send-email-dvyukov@google.com
      
      Signed-off-by: default avatarIngo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
      9f7d416c
  11. 02 Aug, 2016 1 commit
  12. 28 Jul, 2016 1 commit
  13. 25 Jun, 2016 1 commit
  14. 21 May, 2016 1 commit
    • Alexander Potapenko's avatar
      mm: kasan: initial memory quarantine implementation · 55834c59
      Alexander Potapenko authored
      Quarantine isolates freed objects in a separate queue.  The objects are
      returned to the allocator later, which helps to detect use-after-free
      errors.
      
      When the object is freed, its state changes from KASAN_STATE_ALLOC to
      KASAN_STATE_QUARANTINE.  The object is poisoned and put into quarantine
      instead of being returned to the allocator, therefore every subsequent
      access to that object triggers a KASAN error, and the error handler is
      able to say where the object has been allocated and deallocated.
      
      When it's time for the object to leave quarantine, its state becomes
      KASAN_STATE_FREE and it's returned to the allocator.  From now on the
      allocator may reuse it for another allocation.  Before that happens,
      it's still possible to detect a use-after free on that object (it
      retains the allocation/deallocation stacks).
      
      When the allocator reuses this object, the shadow is unpoisoned and old
      allocation/deallocation stacks are wiped.  Therefore a use of this
      object, even an incorrect one, won't trigger ASan warning.
      
      Without the quarantine, it's not guaranteed that the objects aren't
      reused immediately, that's why the probability of catching a
      use-after-free is lower than with quarantine in place.
      
      Quarantine isolates freed objects in a separate queue.  The objects are
      returned to the allocator later, which helps to detect use-after-free
      errors.
      
      Freed objects are first added to per-cpu quarantine queues.  When a
      cache is destroyed or memory shrinking is requested, the objects are
      moved into the global quarantine queue.  Whenever a kmalloc call allows
      memory reclaiming, the oldest objects are popped out of the global queue
      until the total size of objects in quarantine is less than 3/4 of the
      maximum quarantine size (which is a fraction of installed physical
      memory).
      
      As long as an object remains in the quarantine, KASAN is able to report
      accesses to it, so the chance of reporting a use-after-free is
      increased.  Once the object leaves quarantine, the allocator may reuse
      it, in which case the object is unpoisoned and KASAN can't detect
      incorrect accesses to it.
      
      Right now quarantine support is only enabled in SLAB allocator.
      Unification of KASAN features in SLAB and SLUB will be done later.
      
      This patch is based on the "mm: kasan: quarantine" patch originally
      prepared by Dmitry Chernenkov.  A number of improvements have been
      suggested by Andrey Ryabinin.
      
      [glider@google.com: v9]
        Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1462987130-144092-1-git-send-email-glider@google.com
      
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAlexander Potapenko <glider@google.com>
      Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>
      Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org>
      Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
      Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
      Cc: Andrey Konovalov <adech.fo@gmail.com>
      Cc: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
      Cc: Andrey Ryabinin <ryabinin.a.a@gmail.com>
      Cc: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org>
      Cc: Konstantin Serebryany <kcc@google.com>
      Cc: Dmitry Chernenkov <dmitryc@google.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      55834c59
  15. 25 Mar, 2016 2 commits
    • Alexander Potapenko's avatar
      mm, kasan: add GFP flags to KASAN API · 505f5dcb
      Alexander Potapenko authored
      
      
      Add GFP flags to KASAN hooks for future patches to use.
      
      This patch is based on the "mm: kasan: unified support for SLUB and SLAB
      allocators" patch originally prepared by Dmitry Chernenkov.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAlexander Potapenko <glider@google.com>
      Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>
      Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org>
      Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
      Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
      Cc: Andrey Konovalov <adech.fo@gmail.com>
      Cc: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
      Cc: Andrey Ryabinin <ryabinin.a.a@gmail.com>
      Cc: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org>
      Cc: Konstantin Serebryany <kcc@google.com>
      Cc: Dmitry Chernenkov <dmitryc@google.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      505f5dcb
    • Alexander Potapenko's avatar
      mm, kasan: SLAB support · 7ed2f9e6
      Alexander Potapenko authored
      
      
      Add KASAN hooks to SLAB allocator.
      
      This patch is based on the "mm: kasan: unified support for SLUB and SLAB
      allocators" patch originally prepared by Dmitry Chernenkov.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAlexander Potapenko <glider@google.com>
      Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>
      Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org>
      Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
      Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
      Cc: Andrey Konovalov <adech.fo@gmail.com>
      Cc: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
      Cc: Andrey Ryabinin <ryabinin.a.a@gmail.com>
      Cc: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org>
      Cc: Konstantin Serebryany <kcc@google.com>
      Cc: Dmitry Chernenkov <dmitryc@google.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      7ed2f9e6
  16. 09 Mar, 2016 1 commit
    • Mark Rutland's avatar
      kasan: add functions to clear stack poison · e3ae1163
      Mark Rutland authored
      
      
      Functions which the compiler has instrumented for ASAN place poison on
      the stack shadow upon entry and remove this poison prior to returning.
      
      In some cases (e.g. hotplug and idle), CPUs may exit the kernel a
      number of levels deep in C code.  If there are any instrumented
      functions on this critical path, these will leave portions of the idle
      thread stack shadow poisoned.
      
      If a CPU returns to the kernel via a different path (e.g. a cold
      entry), then depending on stack frame layout subsequent calls to
      instrumented functions may use regions of the stack with stale poison,
      resulting in (spurious) KASAN splats to the console.
      
      Contemporary GCCs always add stack shadow poisoning when ASAN is
      enabled, even when asked to not instrument a function [1], so we can't
      simply annotate functions on the critical path to avoid poisoning.
      
      Instead, this series explicitly removes any stale poison before it can
      be hit.  In the common hotplug case we clear the entire stack shadow in
      common code, before a CPU is brought online.
      
      On architectures which perform a cold return as part of cpu idle may
      retain an architecture-specific amount of stack contents.  To retain the
      poison for this retained context, the arch code must call the core KASAN
      code, passing a "watermark" stack pointer value beyond which shadow will
      be cleared.  Architectures which don't perform a cold return as part of
      idle do not need any additional code.
      
      This patch (of 3):
      
      Functions which the compiler has instrumented for KASAN place poison on
      the stack shadow upon entry and remove this poision prior to returning.
      
      In some cases (e.g.  hotplug and idle), CPUs may exit the kernel a number
      of levels deep in C code.  If there are any instrumented functions on this
      critical path, these will leave portions of the stack shadow poisoned.
      
      If a CPU returns to the kernel via a different path (e.g.  a cold entry),
      then depending on stack frame layout subsequent calls to instrumented
      functions may use regions of the stack with stale poison, resulting in
      (spurious) KASAN splats to the console.
      
      To avoid this, we must clear stale poison from the stack prior to
      instrumented functions being called.  This patch adds functions to the
      KASAN core for removing poison from (portions of) a task's stack.  These
      will be used by subsequent patches to avoid problems with hotplug and
      idle.
      Signed-off-by: Mark Rutland's avatarMark Rutland <mark.rutland@arm.com>
      Acked-by: Catalin Marinas's avatarCatalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarAndrey Ryabinin <aryabinin@virtuozzo.com>
      Cc: Alexander Potapenko <glider@google.com>
      Cc: Lorenzo Pieralisi <lorenzo.pieralisi@arm.com>
      Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
      Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
      Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      e3ae1163
  17. 22 Aug, 2015 2 commits
    • Andrey Ryabinin's avatar
      x86/kasan, mm: Introduce generic kasan_populate_zero_shadow() · 69786cdb
      Andrey Ryabinin authored
      
      
      Introduce generic kasan_populate_zero_shadow(shadow_start,
      shadow_end). This function maps kasan_zero_page to the
      [shadow_start, shadow_end] addresses.
      
      This replaces x86_64 specific populate_zero_shadow() and will
      be used for ARM64 in follow on patches.
      
      The main changes from original version are:
      
       * Use p?d_populate*() instead of set_p?d()
       * Use memblock allocator directly instead of vmemmap_alloc_block()
       * __pa() instead of __pa_nodebug(). __pa() causes troubles
         iff we use it before kasan_early_init(). kasan_populate_zero_shadow()
         will be used later, so we ok with __pa() here.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrey Ryabinin <ryabinin.a.a@gmail.com>
      Acked-by: Catalin Marinas's avatarCatalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
      Cc: Alexander Potapenko <glider@google.com>
      Cc: Alexey Klimov <klimov.linux@gmail.com>
      Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Cc: Aneesh Kumar K.V <aneesh.kumar@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
      Cc: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
      Cc: David Keitel <dkeitel@codeaurora.org>
      Cc: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
      Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      Cc: Linus Walleij <linus.walleij@linaro.org>
      Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
      Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
      Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
      Cc: Yury <yury.norov@gmail.com>
      Cc: linux-arm-kernel@lists.infradead.org
      Cc: linux-mm@kvack.org
      Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1439444244-26057-3-git-send-email-ryabinin.a.a@gmail.com
      
      Signed-off-by: default avatarIngo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
      69786cdb
    • Andrey Ryabinin's avatar
      x86/kasan: Define KASAN_SHADOW_OFFSET per architecture · 920e277e
      Andrey Ryabinin authored
      
      
      Current definition of  KASAN_SHADOW_OFFSET in
      include/linux/kasan.h will not work for upcomming arm64, so move
      it to the arch header.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrey Ryabinin <ryabinin.a.a@gmail.com>
      Cc: Alexander Potapenko <glider@google.com>
      Cc: Alexey Klimov <klimov.linux@gmail.com>
      Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Cc: Aneesh Kumar K.V <aneesh.kumar@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
      Cc: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
      Cc: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
      Cc: David Keitel <dkeitel@codeaurora.org>
      Cc: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
      Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      Cc: Linus Walleij <linus.walleij@linaro.org>
      Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
      Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
      Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
      Cc: Yury <yury.norov@gmail.com>
      Cc: linux-arm-kernel@lists.infradead.org
      Cc: linux-mm@kvack.org
      Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1439444244-26057-2-git-send-email-ryabinin.a.a@gmail.com
      
      Signed-off-by: default avatarIngo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
      920e277e
  18. 15 Apr, 2015 1 commit
  19. 13 Mar, 2015 2 commits
  20. 14 Feb, 2015 4 commits
    • Andrey Ryabinin's avatar
      kasan: enable instrumentation of global variables · bebf56a1
      Andrey Ryabinin authored
      
      
      This feature let us to detect accesses out of bounds of global variables.
      This will work as for globals in kernel image, so for globals in modules.
      Currently this won't work for symbols in user-specified sections (e.g.
      __init, __read_mostly, ...)
      
      The idea of this is simple.  Compiler increases each global variable by
      redzone size and add constructors invoking __asan_register_globals()
      function.  Information about global variable (address, size, size with
      redzone ...) passed to __asan_register_globals() so we could poison
      variable's redzone.
      
      This patch also forces module_alloc() to return 8*PAGE_SIZE aligned
      address making shadow memory handling (
      kasan_module_alloc()/kasan_module_free() ) more simple.  Such alignment
      guarantees that each shadow page backing modules address space correspond
      to only one module_alloc() allocation.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrey Ryabinin <a.ryabinin@samsung.com>
      Cc: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
      Cc: Konstantin Serebryany <kcc@google.com>
      Cc: Dmitry Chernenkov <dmitryc@google.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrey Konovalov <adech.fo@gmail.com>
      Cc: Yuri Gribov <tetra2005@gmail.com>
      Cc: Konstantin Khlebnikov <koct9i@gmail.com>
      Cc: Sasha Levin <sasha.levin@oracle.com>
      Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>
      Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
      Cc: Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@intel.com>
      Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org>
      Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
      Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com>
      Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>
      Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org>
      Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      bebf56a1
    • Andrey Ryabinin's avatar
      mm: slub: add kernel address sanitizer support for slub allocator · 0316bec2
      Andrey Ryabinin authored
      
      
      With this patch kasan will be able to catch bugs in memory allocated by
      slub.  Initially all objects in newly allocated slab page, marked as
      redzone.  Later, when allocation of slub object happens, requested by
      caller number of bytes marked as accessible, and the rest of the object
      (including slub's metadata) marked as redzone (inaccessible).
      
      We also mark object as accessible if ksize was called for this object.
      There is some places in kernel where ksize function is called to inquire
      size of really allocated area.  Such callers could validly access whole
      allocated memory, so it should be marked as accessible.
      
      Code in slub.c and slab_common.c files could validly access to object's
      metadata, so instrumentation for this files are disabled.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrey Ryabinin <a.ryabinin@samsung.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDmitry Chernenkov <dmitryc@google.com>
      Cc: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
      Cc: Konstantin Serebryany <kcc@google.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrey Konovalov <adech.fo@gmail.com>
      Cc: Yuri Gribov <tetra2005@gmail.com>
      Cc: Konstantin Khlebnikov <koct9i@gmail.com>
      Cc: Sasha Levin <sasha.levin@oracle.com>
      Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>
      Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
      Cc: Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@intel.com>
      Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org>
      Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
      Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com>
      Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>
      Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org>
      Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      0316bec2
    • Andrey Ryabinin's avatar
      mm: page_alloc: add kasan hooks on alloc and free paths · b8c73fc2
      Andrey Ryabinin authored
      
      
      Add kernel address sanitizer hooks to mark allocated page's addresses as
      accessible in corresponding shadow region.  Mark freed pages as
      inaccessible.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrey Ryabinin <a.ryabinin@samsung.com>
      Cc: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
      Cc: Konstantin Serebryany <kcc@google.com>
      Cc: Dmitry Chernenkov <dmitryc@google.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrey Konovalov <adech.fo@gmail.com>
      Cc: Yuri Gribov <tetra2005@gmail.com>
      Cc: Konstantin Khlebnikov <koct9i@gmail.com>
      Cc: Sasha Levin <sasha.levin@oracle.com>
      Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>
      Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
      Cc: Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@intel.com>
      Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org>
      Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
      Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com>
      Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>
      Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org>
      Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      b8c73fc2
    • Andrey Ryabinin's avatar
      kasan: add kernel address sanitizer infrastructure · 0b24becc
      Andrey Ryabinin authored
      Kernel Address sanitizer (KASan) is a dynamic memory error detector.  It
      provides fast and comprehensive solution for finding use-after-free and
      out-of-bounds bugs.
      
      KASAN uses compile-time instrumentation for checking every memory access,
      therefore GCC > v4.9.2 required.  v4.9.2 almost works, but has issues with
      putting symbol aliases into the wrong section, which breaks kasan
      instrumentation of globals.
      
      This patch only adds infrastructure for kernel address sanitizer.  It's
      not available for use yet.  The idea and some code was borrowed from [1].
      
      Basic idea:
      
      The main idea of KASAN is to use shadow memory to record whether each byte
      of memory is safe to access or not, and use compiler's instrumentation to
      check the shadow memory on each memory access.
      
      Address sanitizer uses 1/8 of the memory addressable in kernel for shadow
      memory and uses direct mapping with a scale and offset to translate a
      memory address to its corresponding shadow address.
      
      Here is function to translate address to corresponding shadow address:
      
           unsigned long kasan_mem_to_shadow(unsigned long addr)
           {
                      return (addr >> KASAN_SHADOW_SCALE_SHIFT) + KASAN_SHADOW_OFFSET;
           }
      
      where KASAN_SHADOW_SCALE_SHIFT = 3.
      
      So for every 8 bytes there is one corresponding byte of shadow memory.
      The following encoding used for each shadow byte: 0 means that all 8 bytes
      of the corresponding memory region are valid for access; k (1 <= k <= 7)
      means that the first k bytes are valid for access, and other (8 - k) bytes
      are not; Any negative value indicates that the entire 8-bytes are
      inaccessible.  Different negative values used to distinguish between
      different kinds of inaccessible memory (redzones, freed memory) (see
      mm/kasan/kasan.h).
      
      To be able to detect accesses to bad memory we need a special compiler.
      Such compiler inserts a specific function calls (__asan_load*(addr),
      __asan_store*(addr)) before each memory access of size 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16.
      
      These functions check whether memory region is valid to access or not by
      checking corresponding shadow memory.  If access is not valid an error
      printed.
      
      Historical background of the address sanitizer from Dmitry Vyukov:
      
      	"We've developed the set of tools, AddressSanitizer (Asan),
      	ThreadSanitizer and MemorySanitizer, for user space. We actively use
      	them for testing inside of Google (continuous testing, fuzzing,
      	running prod services). To date the tools have found more than 10'000
      	scary bugs in Chromium, Google internal codebase and various
      	open-source projects (Firefox, OpenSSL, gcc, clang, ffmpeg, MySQL and
      	lots of others): [2] [3] [4].
      	The tools are part of both gcc and clang compilers.
      
      	We have not yet done massive testing under the Kernel AddressSanitizer
      	(it's kind of chicken and egg problem, you need it to be upstream to
      	start applying it extensively). To date it has found about 50 bugs.
      	Bugs that we've found in upstream kernel are listed in [5].
      	We've also found ~20 bugs in out internal version of the kernel. Also
      	people from Samsung and Oracle have found some.
      
      	[...]
      
      	As others noted, the main feature of AddressSanitizer is its
      	performance due to inline compiler instrumentation and simple linear
      	shadow memory. User-space Asan has ~2x slowdown on computational
      	programs and ~2x memory consumption increase. Taking into account that
      	kernel usually consumes only small fraction of CPU and memory when
      	running real user-space programs, I would expect that kernel Asan will
      	have ~10-30% slowdown and similar memory consumption increase (when we
      	finish all tuning).
      
      	I agree that Asan can well replace kmemcheck. We have plans to start
      	working on Kernel MemorySanitizer that finds uses of unitialized
      	memory. Asan+Msan will provide feature-parity with kmemcheck. As
      	others noted, Asan will unlikely replace debug slab and pagealloc that
      	can be enabled at runtime. Asan uses compiler instrumentation, so even
      	if it is disabled, it still incurs visible overheads.
      
      	Asan technology is easily portable to other architectures. Compiler
      	instrumentation is fully portable. Runtime has some arch-dependent
      	parts like shadow mapping and atomic operation interception. They are
      	relatively easy to port."
      
      Comparison with other debugging features:
      ========================================
      
      KMEMCHECK:
      
        - KASan can do almost everything that kmemcheck can.  KASan uses
          compile-time instrumentation, which makes it significantly faster than
          kmemcheck.  The only advantage of kmemcheck over KASan is detection of
          uninitialized memory reads.
      
          Some brief performance testing showed that kasan could be
          x500-x600 times faster than kmemcheck:
      
      $ netperf -l 30
      		MIGRATED TCP STREAM TEST from 0.0.0.0 (0.0.0.0) port 0 AF_INET to localhost (127.0.0.1) port 0 AF_INET
      		Recv   Send    Send
      		Socket Socket  Message  Elapsed
      		Size   Size    Size     Time     Throughput
      		bytes  bytes   bytes    secs.    10^6bits/sec
      
      no debug:	87380  16384  16384    30.00    41624.72
      
      kasan inline:	87380  16384  16384    30.00    12870.54
      
      kasan outline:	87380  16384  16384    30.00    10586.39
      
      kmemcheck: 	87380  16384  16384    30.03      20.23
      
        - Also kmemcheck couldn't work on several CPUs.  It always sets
          number of CPUs to 1.  KASan doesn't have such limitation.
      
      DEBUG_PAGEALLOC:
      	- KASan is slower than DEBUG_PAGEALLOC, but KASan works on sub-page
      	  granularity level, so it able to find more bugs.
      
      SLUB_DEBUG (poisoning, redzones):
      	- SLUB_DEBUG has lower overhead than KASan.
      
      	- SLUB_DEBUG in most cases are not able to detect bad reads,
      	  KASan able to detect both reads and writes.
      
      	- In some cases (e.g. redzone overwritten) SLUB_DEBUG detect
      	  bugs only on allocation/freeing of object. KASan catch
      	  bugs right before it will happen, so we always know exact
      	  place of first bad read/write.
      
      [1] https://code.google.com/p/address-sanitizer/wiki/AddressSanitizerForKernel
      [2] https://code.google.com/p/address-sanitizer/wiki/FoundBugs
      [3] https://code.google.com/p/thread-sanitizer/wiki/FoundBugs
      [4] https://code.google.com/p/memory-sanitizer/wiki/FoundBugs
      [5] https://code.google.com/p/address-sanitizer/wiki/AddressSanitizerForKernel#Trophies
      
      
      
      Based on work by Andrey Konovalov.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrey Ryabinin <a.ryabinin@samsung.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarMichal Marek <mmarek@suse.cz>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrey Konovalov <adech.fo@gmail.com>
      Cc: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
      Cc: Konstantin Serebryany <kcc@google.com>
      Cc: Dmitry Chernenkov <dmitryc@google.com>
      Cc: Yuri Gribov <tetra2005@gmail.com>
      Cc: Konstantin Khlebnikov <koct9i@gmail.com>
      Cc: Sasha Levin <sasha.levin@oracle.com>
      Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>
      Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
      Cc: Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@intel.com>
      Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org>
      Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
      Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com>
      Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>
      Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org>
      Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
      Cc: Stephen Rothwell <sfr@canb.auug.org.au>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      0b24becc