1. 06 Apr, 2018 11 commits
  2. 07 Feb, 2018 2 commits
  3. 01 Feb, 2018 2 commits
  4. 15 Jan, 2018 4 commits
    • Kees Cook's avatar
      usercopy: Allow strict enforcement of whitelists · 2d891fbc
      Kees Cook authored
      
      
      This introduces CONFIG_HARDENED_USERCOPY_FALLBACK to control the
      behavior of hardened usercopy whitelist violations. By default, whitelist
      violations will continue to WARN() so that any bad or missing usercopy
      whitelists can be discovered without being too disruptive.
      
      If this config is disabled at build time or a system is booted with
      "slab_common.usercopy_fallback=0", usercopy whitelists will BUG() instead
      of WARN(). This is useful for admins that want to use usercopy whitelists
      immediately.
      Suggested-by: default avatarMatthew Garrett <mjg59@google.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarKees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
      2d891fbc
    • Kees Cook's avatar
      usercopy: WARN() on slab cache usercopy region violations · afcc90f8
      Kees Cook authored
      
      
      This patch adds checking of usercopy cache whitelisting, and is modified
      from Brad Spengler/PaX Team's PAX_USERCOPY whitelisting code in the
      last public patch of grsecurity/PaX based on my understanding of the
      code. Changes or omissions from the original code are mine and don't
      reflect the original grsecurity/PaX code.
      
      The SLAB and SLUB allocators are modified to WARN() on all copy operations
      in which the kernel heap memory being modified falls outside of the cache's
      defined usercopy region.
      
      Based on an earlier patch from David Windsor.
      
      Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>
      Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org>
      Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
      Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
      Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Cc: Laura Abbott <labbott@redhat.com>
      Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
      Cc: Mark Rutland <mark.rutland@arm.com>
      Cc: linux-mm@kvack.org
      Cc: linux-xfs@vger.kernel.org
      Signed-off-by: default avatarKees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
      afcc90f8
    • David Windsor's avatar
      usercopy: Prepare for usercopy whitelisting · 8eb8284b
      David Windsor authored
      
      
      This patch prepares the slab allocator to handle caches having annotations
      (useroffset and usersize) defining usercopy regions.
      
      This patch is modified from Brad Spengler/PaX Team's PAX_USERCOPY
      whitelisting code in the last public patch of grsecurity/PaX based on
      my understanding of the code. Changes or omissions from the original
      code are mine and don't reflect the original grsecurity/PaX code.
      
      Currently, hardened usercopy performs dynamic bounds checking on slab
      cache objects. This is good, but still leaves a lot of kernel memory
      available to be copied to/from userspace in the face of bugs. To further
      restrict what memory is available for copying, this creates a way to
      whitelist specific areas of a given slab cache object for copying to/from
      userspace, allowing much finer granularity of access control. Slab caches
      that are never exposed to userspace can declare no whitelist for their
      objects, thereby keeping them unavailable to userspace via dynamic copy
      operations. (Note, an implicit form of whitelisting is the use of constant
      sizes in usercopy operations and get_user()/put_user(); these bypass
      hardened usercopy checks since these sizes cannot change at runtime.)
      
      To support this whitelist annotation, usercopy region offset and size
      members are added to struct kmem_cache. The slab allocator receives a
      new function, kmem_cache_create_usercopy(), that creates a new cache
      with a usercopy region defined, suitable for declaring spans of fields
      within the objects that get copied to/from userspace.
      
      In this patch, the default kmem_cache_create() marks the entire allocation
      as whitelisted, leaving it semantically unchanged. Once all fine-grained
      whitelists have been added (in subsequent patches), this will be changed
      to a usersize of 0, making caches created with kmem_cache_create() not
      copyable to/from userspace.
      
      After the entire usercopy whitelist series is applied, less than 15%
      of the slab cache memory remains exposed to potential usercopy bugs
      after a fresh boot:
      
      Total Slab Memory:           48074720
      Usercopyable Memory:          6367532  13.2%
               task_struct                    0.2%         4480/1630720
               RAW                            0.3%            300/96000
               RAWv6                          2.1%           1408/64768
               ext4_inode_cache               3.0%       269760/8740224
               dentry                        11.1%       585984/5273856
               mm_struct                     29.1%         54912/188448
               kmalloc-8                    100.0%          24576/24576
               kmalloc-16                   100.0%          28672/28672
               kmalloc-32                   100.0%          81920/81920
               kmalloc-192                  100.0%          96768/96768
               kmalloc-128                  100.0%        143360/143360
               names_cache                  100.0%        163840/163840
               kmalloc-64                   100.0%        167936/167936
               kmalloc-256                  100.0%        339968/339968
               kmalloc-512                  100.0%        350720/350720
               kmalloc-96                   100.0%        455616/455616
               kmalloc-8192                 100.0%        655360/655360
               kmalloc-1024                 100.0%        812032/812032
               kmalloc-4096                 100.0%        819200/819200
               kmalloc-2048                 100.0%      1310720/1310720
      
      After some kernel build workloads, the percentage (mainly driven by
      dentry and inode caches expanding) drops under 10%:
      
      Total Slab Memory:           95516184
      Usercopyable Memory:          8497452   8.8%
               task_struct                    0.2%         4000/1456000
               RAW                            0.3%            300/96000
               RAWv6                          2.1%           1408/64768
               ext4_inode_cache               3.0%     1217280/39439872
               dentry                        11.1%     1623200/14608800
               mm_struct                     29.1%         73216/251264
               kmalloc-8                    100.0%          24576/24576
               kmalloc-16                   100.0%          28672/28672
               kmalloc-32                   100.0%          94208/94208
               kmalloc-192                  100.0%          96768/96768
               kmalloc-128                  100.0%        143360/143360
               names_cache                  100.0%        163840/163840
               kmalloc-64                   100.0%        245760/245760
               kmalloc-256                  100.0%        339968/339968
               kmalloc-512                  100.0%        350720/350720
               kmalloc-96                   100.0%        563520/563520
               kmalloc-8192                 100.0%        655360/655360
               kmalloc-1024                 100.0%        794624/794624
               kmalloc-4096                 100.0%        819200/819200
               kmalloc-2048                 100.0%      1257472/1257472
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Windsor <dave@nullcore.net>
      [kees: adjust commit log, split out a few extra kmalloc hunks]
      [kees: add field names to function declarations]
      [kees: convert BUGs to WARNs and fail closed]
      [kees: add attack surface reduction analysis to commit log]
      Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org>
      Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
      Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
      Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Cc: linux-mm@kvack.org
      Cc: linux-xfs@vger.kernel.org
      Signed-off-by: default avatarKees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
      Acked-by: default avatarChristoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>
      8eb8284b
    • Kees Cook's avatar
      usercopy: Include offset in hardened usercopy report · f4e6e289
      Kees Cook authored
      
      
      This refactors the hardened usercopy code so that failure reporting can
      happen within the checking functions instead of at the top level. This
      simplifies the return value handling and allows more details and offsets
      to be included in the report. Having the offset can be much more helpful
      in understanding hardened usercopy bugs.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarKees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
      f4e6e289
  5. 16 Nov, 2017 8 commits
  6. 02 Nov, 2017 1 commit
    • Greg Kroah-Hartman's avatar
      License cleanup: add SPDX GPL-2.0 license identifier to files with no license · b2441318
      Greg Kroah-Hartman authored
      
      
      Many source files in the tree are missing licensing information, which
      makes it harder for compliance tools to determine the correct license.
      
      By default all files without license information are under the default
      license of the kernel, which is GPL version 2.
      
      Update the files which contain no license information with the 'GPL-2.0'
      SPDX license identifier.  The SPDX identifier is a legally binding
      shorthand, which can be used instead of the full boiler plate text.
      
      This patch is based on work done by Thomas Gleixner and Kate Stewart and
      Philippe Ombredanne.
      
      How this work was done:
      
      Patches were generated and checked against linux-4.14-rc6 for a subset of
      the use cases:
       - file had no licensing information it it.
       - file was a */uapi/* one with no licensing information in it,
       - file was a */uapi/* one with existing licensing information,
      
      Further patches will be generated in subsequent months to fix up cases
      where non-standard license headers were used, and references to license
      had to be inferred by heuristics based on keywords.
      
      The analysis to determine which SPDX License Identifier to be applied to
      a file was done in a spreadsheet of side by side results from of the
      output of two independent scanners (ScanCode & Windriver) producing SPDX
      tag:value files created by Philippe Ombredanne.  Philippe prepared the
      base worksheet, and did an initial spot review of a few 1000 files.
      
      The 4.13 kernel was the starting point of the analysis with 60,537 files
      assessed.  Kate Stewart did a file by file comparison of the scanner
      results in the spreadsheet to determine which SPDX license identifier(s)
      to be applied to the file. She confirmed any determination that was not
      immediately clear with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      
      Criteria used to select files for SPDX license identifier tagging was:
       - Files considered eligible had to be source code files.
       - Make and config files were included as candidates if they contained >5
         lines of source
       - File already had some variant of a license header in it (even if <5
         lines).
      
      All documentation files were explicitly excluded.
      
      The following heuristics were used to determine which SPDX license
      identifiers to apply.
      
       - when both scanners couldn't find any license traces, file was
         considered to have no license information in it, and the top level
         COPYING file license applied.
      
         For non */uapi/* files that summary was:
      
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         ---------------------------------------------------|-------
         GPL-2.0                                              11139
      
         and resulted in the first patch in this series.
      
         If that file was a */uapi/* path one, it was "GPL-2.0 WITH
         Linux-syscall-note" otherwise it was "GPL-2.0".  Results of that was:
      
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         ---------------------------------------------------|-------
         GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note                        930
      
         and resulted in the second patch in this series.
      
       - if a file had some form of licensing information in it, and was one
         of the */uapi/* ones, it was denoted with the Linux-syscall-note if
         any GPL family license was found in the file or had no licensing in
         it (per prior point).  Results summary:
      
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         ---------------------------------------------------|------
         GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note                       270
         GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                      169
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-2-Clause)    21
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause)    17
         LGPL-2.1+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                      15
         GPL-1.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                       14
         ((GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause)    5
         LGPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                       4
         LGPL-2.1 WITH Linux-syscall-note                        3
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR MIT)              3
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) AND MIT)             1
      
         and that resulted in the third patch in this series.
      
       - when the two scanners agreed on the detected license(s), that became
         the concluded license(s).
      
       - when there was disagreement between the two scanners (one detected a
         license but the other didn't, or they both detected different
         licenses) a manual inspection of the file occurred.
      
       - In most cases a manual inspection of the information in the file
         resulted in a clear resolution of the license that should apply (and
         which scanner probably needed to revisit its heuristics).
      
       - When it was not immediately clear, the license identifier was
         confirmed with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      
       - If there was any question as to the appropriate license identifier,
         the file was flagged for further research and to be revisited later
         in time.
      
      In total, over 70 hours of logged manual review was done on the
      spreadsheet to determine the SPDX license identifiers to apply to the
      source files by Kate, Philippe, Thomas and, in some cases, confirmation
      by lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      
      Kate also obtained a third independent scan of the 4.13 code base from
      FOSSology, and compared selected files where the other two scanners
      disagreed against that SPDX file, to see if there was new insights.  The
      Windriver scanner is based on an older version of FOSSology in part, so
      they are related.
      
      Thomas did random spot checks in about 500 files from the spreadsheets
      for the uapi headers and agreed with SPDX license identifier in the
      files he inspected. For the non-uapi files Thomas did random spot checks
      in about 15000 files.
      
      In initial set of patches against 4.14-rc6, 3 files were found to have
      copy/paste license identifier errors, and have been fixed to reflect the
      correct identifier.
      
      Additionally Philippe spent 10 hours this week doing a detailed manual
      inspection and review of the 12,461 patched files from the initial patch
      version early this week with:
       - a full scancode scan run, collecting the matched texts, detected
         license ids and scores
       - reviewing anything where there was a license detected (about 500+
         files) to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct
       - reviewing anything where there was no detection but the patch license
         was not GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note to ensure that the applied
         SPDX license was correct
      
      This produced a worksheet with 20 files needing minor correction.  This
      worksheet was then exported into 3 different .csv files for the
      different types of files to be modified.
      
      These .csv files were then reviewed by Greg.  Thomas wrote a script to
      parse the csv files and add the proper SPDX tag to the file, in the
      format that the file expected.  This script was further refined by Greg
      based on the output to detect more types of files automatically and to
      distinguish between header and source .c files (which need different
      comment types.)  Finally Greg ran the script using the .csv files to
      generate the patches.
      Reviewed-by: default avatarKate Stewart <kstewart@linuxfoundation.org>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarPhilippe Ombredanne <pombredanne@nexb.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarThomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarGreg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
      b2441318
  7. 14 Sep, 2017 1 commit
    • Michal Hocko's avatar
      mm: treewide: remove GFP_TEMPORARY allocation flag · 0ee931c4
      Michal Hocko authored
      GFP_TEMPORARY was introduced by commit e12ba74d ("Group short-lived
      and reclaimable kernel allocations") along with __GFP_RECLAIMABLE.  It's
      primary motivation was to allow users to tell that an allocation is
      short lived and so the allocator can try to place such allocations close
      together and prevent long term fragmentation.  As much as this sounds
      like a reasonable semantic it becomes much less clear when to use the
      highlevel GFP_TEMPORARY allocation flag.  How long is temporary? Can the
      context holding that memory sleep? Can it take locks? It seems there is
      no good answer for those questions.
      
      The current implementation of GFP_TEMPORARY is basically GFP_KERNEL |
      __GFP_RECLAIMABLE which in itself is tricky because basically none of
      the existing caller provide a way to reclaim the allocated memory.  So
      this is rather misleading and hard to evaluate for any benefits.
      
      I have checked some random users and none of them has added the flag
      with a specific justification.  I suspect most of them just copied from
      other existing users and others just thought it might be a good idea to
      use without any measuring.  This suggests that GFP_TEMPORARY just
      motivates for cargo cult usage without any reasoning.
      
      I believe that our gfp flags are quite complex already and especially
      those with highlevel semantic should be clearly defined to prevent from
      confusion and abuse.  Therefore I propose dropping GFP_TEMPORARY and
      replace all existing users to simply use GFP_KERNEL.  Please note that
      SLAB users with shrinkers will still get __GFP_RECLAIMABLE heuristic and
      so they will be placed properly for memory fragmentation prevention.
      
      I can see reasons we might want some gfp flag to reflect shorterm
      allocations but I propose starting from a clear semantic definition and
      only then add users with proper justification.
      
      This was been brought up before LSF this year by Matthew [1] and it
      turned out that GFP_TEMPORARY really doesn't have a clear semantic.  It
      seems to be a heuristic without any measured advantage for most (if not
      all) its current users.  The follow up discussion has revealed that
      opinions on what might be temporary allocation differ a lot between
      developers.  So rather than trying to tweak existing users into a
      semantic which they haven't expected I propose to simply remove the flag
      and start from scratch if we really need a semantic for short term
      allocations.
      
      [1] http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20170118054945.GD18349@bombadil.infradead.org
      
      [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix typo]
      [akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes]
      [sfr@canb.auug.org.au: drm/i915: fix up]
        Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20170816144703.378d4f4d@canb.auug.org.au
      Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20170728091904.14627-1-mhocko@kernel.org
      
      Signed-off-by: default avatarMichal Hocko <mhocko@suse.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarStephen Rothwell <sfr@canb.auug.org.au>
      Acked-by: default avatarMel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de>
      Acked-by: default avatarVlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz>
      Cc: Matthew Wilcox <willy@infradead.org>
      Cc: Neil Brown <neilb@suse.de>
      Cc: "Theodore Ts'o" <tytso@mit.edu>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      0ee931c4
  8. 09 Sep, 2017 1 commit
  9. 07 Sep, 2017 4 commits
  10. 18 Aug, 2017 1 commit
    • Vladimir Davydov's avatar
      slub: fix per memcg cache leak on css offline · f6ba4880
      Vladimir Davydov authored
      To avoid a possible deadlock, sysfs_slab_remove() schedules an
      asynchronous work to delete sysfs entries corresponding to the kmem
      cache.  To ensure the cache isn't freed before the work function is
      called, it takes a reference to the cache kobject.  The reference is
      supposed to be released by the work function.
      
      However, the work function (sysfs_slab_remove_workfn()) does nothing in
      case the cache sysfs entry has already been deleted, leaking the kobject
      and the corresponding cache.
      
      This may happen on a per memcg cache destruction, because sysfs entries
      of a per memcg cache are deleted on memcg offline if the cache is empty
      (see __kmemcg_cache_deactivate()).
      
      The kmemleak report looks like this:
      
        unreferenced object 0xffff9f798a79f540 (size 32):
          comm "kworker/1:4", pid 15416, jiffies 4307432429 (age 28687.554s)
          hex dump (first 32 bytes):
            6b 6d 61 6c 6c 6f 63 2d 31 36 28 31 35 39 39 3a  kmalloc-16(1599:
            6e 65 77 72 6f 6f 74 29 00 23 6b c0 ff ff ff ff  newroot).#k.....
          backtrace:
             kmemleak_alloc+0x4a/0xa0
             __kmalloc_track_caller+0x148/0x2c0
             kvasprintf+0x66/0xd0
             kasprintf+0x49/0x70
             memcg_create_kmem_cache+0xe6/0x160
             memcg_kmem_cache_create_func+0x20/0x110
             process_one_work+0x205/0x5d0
             worker_thread+0x4e/0x3a0
             kthread+0x109/0x140
             ret_from_fork+0x2a/0x40
        unreferenced object 0xffff9f79b6136840 (size 416):
          comm "kworker/1:4", pid 15416, jiffies 4307432429 (age 28687.573s)
          hex dump (first 32 bytes):
            40 fb 80 c2 3e 33 00 00 00 00 00 40 00 00 00 00  @...>3.....@....
            00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 10 00 00 00 10 00 00 00  ................
          backtrace:
             kmemleak_alloc+0x4a/0xa0
             kmem_cache_alloc+0x128/0x280
             create_cache+0x3b/0x1e0
             memcg_create_kmem_cache+0x118/0x160
             memcg_kmem_cache_create_func+0x20/0x110
             process_one_work+0x205/0x5d0
             worker_thread+0x4e/0x3a0
             kthread+0x109/0x140
             ret_from_fork+0x2a/0x40
      
      Fix the leak by adding the missing call to kobject_put() to
      sysfs_slab_remove_workfn().
      
      Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20170812181134.25027-1-vdavydov.dev@gmail.com
      Fixes: 3b7b3140
      
       ("slub: make sysfs file removal asynchronous")
      Signed-off-by: default avatarVladimir Davydov <vdavydov.dev@gmail.com>
      Reported-by: default avatarAndrei Vagin <avagin@gmail.com>
      Tested-by: default avatarAndrei Vagin <avagin@gmail.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarTejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
      Acked-by: default avatarDavid Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
      Cc: Michal Hocko <mhocko@kernel.org>
      Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
      Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>
      Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org>
      Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
      Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org>	[4.12.x]
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      f6ba4880
  11. 06 Jul, 2017 5 commits