1. 07 Feb, 2020 1 commit
    • Damien Le Moal's avatar
      fs: New zonefs file system · 8dcc1a9d
      Damien Le Moal authored
      zonefs is a very simple file system exposing each zone of a zoned block
      device as a file. Unlike a regular file system with zoned block device
      support (e.g. f2fs), zonefs does not hide the sequential write
      constraint of zoned block devices to the user. Files representing
      sequential write zones of the device must be written sequentially
      starting from the end of the file (append only writes).
      As such, zonefs is in essence closer to a raw block device access
      interface than to a full featured POSIX file system. The goal of zonefs
      is to simplify the implementation of zoned block device support in
      applications by replacing raw block device file accesses with a richer
      file API, avoiding relying on direct block device file ioctls which may
      be more obscure to developers. One example of this approach is the
      implementation of LSM (log-structured merge) tree structures (such as
      used in RocksDB and LevelDB) on zoned block devices by allowing SSTables
      to be stored in a zone file similarly to a regular file system rather
      than as a range of sectors of a zoned device. The introduction of the
      higher level construct "one file is one zone" can help reducing the
      amount of changes needed in the application as well as introducing
      support for different application programming languages.
      Zonefs on-disk metadata is reduced to an immutable super block to
      persistently store a magic number and optional feature flags and
      values. On mount, zonefs uses blkdev_report_zones() to obtain the device
      zone configuration and populates the mount point with a static file tree
      solely based on this information. E.g. file sizes come from the device
      zone type and write pointer offset managed by the device itself.
      The zone files created on mount have the following characteristics.
      1) Files representing zones of the same type are grouped together
         under a common sub-directory:
           * For conventional zones, the sub-directory "cnv" is used.
           * For sequential write zones, the sub-directory "seq" is used.
        These two directories are the only directories that exist in zonefs.
        Users cannot create other directories and cannot rename nor delete
        the "cnv" and "seq" sub-directories.
      2) The name of zone files is the number of the file within the zone
         type sub-directory, in order of increasing zone start sector.
      3) The size of conventional zone files is fixed to the device zone size.
         Conventional zone files cannot be truncated.
      4) The size of sequential zone files represent the file's zone write
         pointer position relative to the zone start sector. Truncating these
         files is allowed only down to 0, in which case, the zone is reset to
         rewind the zone write pointer position to the start of the zone, or
         up to the zone size, in which case the file's zone is transitioned
         to the FULL state (finish zone operation).
      5) All read and write operations to files are not allowed beyond the
         file zone size. Any access exceeding the zone size is failed with
         the -EFBIG error.
      6) Creating, deleting, renaming or modifying any attribute of files and
         sub-directories is not allowed.
      7) There are no restrictions on the type of read and write operations
         that can be issued to conventional zone files. Buffered, direct and
         mmap read & write operations are accepted. For sequential zone files,
         there are no restrictions on read operations, but all write
         operations must be direct IO append writes. mmap write of sequential
         files is not allowed.
      Several optional features of zonefs can be enabled at format time.
      * Conventional zone aggregation: ranges of contiguous conventional
        zones can be aggregated into a single larger file instead of the
        default one file per zone.
      * File ownership: The owner UID and GID of zone files is by default 0
        (root) but can be changed to any valid UID/GID.
      * File access permissions: the default 640 access permissions can be
      The mkzonefs tool is used to format zoned block devices for use with
      zonefs. This tool is available on Github at:
      zonefs-tools also includes a test suite which can be run against any
      zoned block device, including null_blk block device created with zoned
      Example: the following formats a 15TB host-managed SMR HDD with 256 MB
      zones with the conventional zones aggregation feature enabled.
      $ sudo mkzonefs -o aggr_cnv /dev/sdX
      $ sudo mount -t zonefs /dev/sdX /mnt
      $ ls -l /mnt/
      total 0
      dr-xr-xr-x 2 root root     1 Nov 25 13:23 cnv
      dr-xr-xr-x 2 root root 55356 Nov 25 13:23 seq
      The size of the zone files sub-directories indicate the number of files
      existing for each type of zones. In this example, there is only one
      conventional zone file (all conventional zones are aggregated under a
      single file).
      $ ls -l /mnt/cnv
      total 137101312
      -rw-r----- 1 root root 140391743488 Nov 25 13:23 0
      This aggregated conventional zone file can be used as a regular file.
      $ sudo mkfs.ext4 /mnt/cnv/0
      $ sudo mount -o loop /mnt/cnv/0 /data
      The "seq" sub-directory grouping files for sequential write zones has
      in this example 55356 zones.
      $ ls -lv /mnt/seq
      total 14511243264
      -rw-r----- 1 root root 0 Nov 25 13:23 0
      -rw-r----- 1 root root 0 Nov 25 13:23 1
      -rw-r----- 1 root root 0 Nov 25 13:23 2
      -rw-r----- 1 root root 0 Nov 25 13:23 55354
      -rw-r----- 1 root root 0 Nov 25 13:23 55355
      For sequential write zone files, the file size changes as data is
      appended at the end of the file, similarly to any regular file system.
      $ dd if=/dev/zero of=/mnt/seq/0 bs=4K count=1 conv=notrunc oflag=direct
      1+0 records in
      1+0 records out
      4096 bytes (4.1 kB, 4.0 KiB) copied, 0.000452219 s, 9.1 MB/s
      $ ls -l /mnt/seq/0
      -rw-r----- 1 root root 4096 Nov 25 13:23 /mnt/seq/0
      The written file can be truncated to the zone size, preventing any
      further write operation.
      $ truncate -s 268435456 /mnt/seq/0
      $ ls -l /mnt/seq/0
      -rw-r----- 1 root root 268435456 Nov 25 13:49 /mnt/seq/0
      Truncation to 0 size allows freeing the file zone storage space and
      restart append-writes to the file.
      $ truncate -s 0 /mnt/seq/0
      $ ls -l /mnt/seq/0
      -rw-r----- 1 root root 0 Nov 25 13:49 /mnt/seq/0
      Since files are statically mapped to zones on the disk, the number of
      blocks of a file as reported by stat() and fstat() indicates the size
      of the file zone.
      $ stat /mnt/seq/0
        File: /mnt/seq/0
        Size: 0       Blocks: 524288     IO Block: 4096   regular empty file
      Device: 870h/2160d      Inode: 50431       Links: 1
      Access: (0640/-rw-r-----)  Uid: (    0/    root)   Gid: (    0/  root)
      Access: 2019-11-25 13:23:57.048971997 +0900
      Modify: 2019-11-25 13:52:25.553805765 +0900
      Change: 2019-11-25 13:52:25.553805765 +0900
       Birth: -
      The number of blocks of the file ("Blocks") in units of 512B blocks
      gives the maximum file size of 524288 * 512 B = 256 MB, corresponding
      to the device zone size in this example. Of note is that the "IO block"
      field always indicates the minimum IO size for writes and corresponds
      to the device physical sector size.
      This code contains contributions from:
      * Johannes Thumshirn <jthumshirn@suse.de>,
      * Darrick J. Wong <darrick.wong@oracle.com>,
      * Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>,
      * Chaitanya Kulkarni <chaitanya.kulkarni@wdc.com> and
      * Ting Yao <tingyao@hust.edu.cn>.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDamien Le Moal <damien.lemoal@wdc.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarDave Chinner <dchinner@redhat.com>